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This protocol describes the heterologous expression and purification of proteins related to anoxic hydrogen production of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Noth et al., 2013). For this, the bacterial expression hosts Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) ΔiscR (Akhtar MK et al., 2008) and Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 are used, which are grown either aerobic or anaerobic with glucose. Two standard chromatographic methods for purification were applied using His- and StrepII-tagged proteins (Figure 1). All procedures have been performed in an anaerobic tent to avoid the access of oxygen.

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Heterologous Production and Anaerobic Purification of His- and StrepII-tagged Recombinant Proteins

Plant Science > Phycology > Protein > Expression
Author: Jens Noth
Jens NothAffiliation: Fakultät für Biologie und Biotechnologie, AG Photobiotechnologie, Ruhr Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
For correspondence: jens.noth@rub.de
Bio-protocol author page: a514
Vol 3, Iss 17, 9/5/2013, 5119 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.881

[Abstract] This protocol describes the heterologous expression and purification of proteins related to anoxic hydrogen production of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Noth et al., 2013). For this, the bacterial expression hosts Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) ΔiscR (Akhtar MK et al., 2008) and Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 are used, which are grown either aerobic or anaerobic with glucose. Two standard chromatographic methods for purification were applied using His- and StrepII-tagged proteins (Figure 1). All procedures have been performed in an anaerobic tent to avoid the access of oxygen.

Keywords: Fermentation, Protein Isolation, Hydrogenase, Iron Sulfur Cluster, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii


Figure 1. Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE of purified, heterologously expressed proteins from C. reinhardtii. M: MW marker PageRuler Prestained Protein Ladder 10-170 kDa; a) purified PFR1 loaded onto a 10% SDS-polyacrylamidgel; b) purified [2Fe2S] ferredoxin (PetF) loaded onto a 15% SDS-polyacrylamidgel; c) purifiedhydrogenase (HydA1) loaded onto a 10% SDS-polyacrylamidgel. Different amounts of protein are loaded onto each gel.

Materials and Reagents

  1. Expression vector (pASK-IBA)
  2. LB medium (Lennox) (Carl Roth)
  3. Vogel Bonner minimal medium (homemade) (Vogel HJ et al., 1956)
  4. Thiamin hydrochlorid (Carl Roth)
  5. Resazurin (Riedel-de Haën)
  6. Immidazole (Alfa Aesar)
  7. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) ΔiscR
  8. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824
  9. Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow (GE Healthcare)
  10. Strep-Tactin Superflow (IBA Gmb)
  11. Ampicillin
  12. Anhydrotetracycline
  13. Glucose
  14. Sodium dithionite (laboratory reagent grade > 85%)
  15. Avidin (Affiland)
  16. Strep tactin
  17. Glycerol
  18. d-desthiobiotin (≥ 98%, TLC)
  19. Thiamine pyrophosphate
  20. PageRuler Prestained Protein Ladder 10-170 kDa (Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog number: 26616)
  21. 0.1 M Tris buffer (pH 8) (see Recipes)
  22. Pre-equilibrated gravity flow Ni-NTA (see Recipes)

Equipment

  1. Airtight vial
  2. Sonicator: Branson Sonifier 250 (Branson)
  3. Ultracentrifuge
  4. Anaerobic tent (1% H2, 99% N2) (Toepffer Lab Systems)
  5. 0.2 μm pore size sterile filter (Sarstedt AG & Co.)
  6. NanoDrop (Paqlab, Germany)
  7. Batch fermenter (Infors HT, CH)

Procedure

  1. Anaerobic expression of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (Noth et al., 2013)
    1. Electroporation (Sambrook et al., 2006) of 100 μl E. coli BL21 (DE3) ΔiscR (Akhtar et al., 2008) with ~100 ng expression vector (pASK-IBA).
    2. Inoculation of 200 ml LB and aerobic growth of a preculture over night at 37 °C (180 rpm).
    3. Inoculation of 4 L Vogel Bonner medium (8 x 500 ml; 2,000 ml Erlenmeyer flasks) supplemented with 100 μg/ml ampicillin, 50 μM thiamin hydrochlorid and 0.2 μM resazurin using 15 ml preculture each.
    4. Aerobic growth at 37 °C and 180 rpm until the culture reaches the anaerobic phase at A600 of 0.6. At that point, the redox indicator resazurin within the medium turns from blue to pink.
    5. Each 2 L of culture are induced by adding 0.2 μg/ml anhydrotetracycline and transferred into sterile 2 L Schott flasks containing 50 ml 20% glucose (5 g/L).
    6. Protein expression is carried out over night at 8 °C without stirring.
    7. Cells are anaerobically harvested by centrifugation for 20 min at 7,500 x g, resuspended in Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10% glycerol and stored at -20 °C until purification.

  2. Anaerobic purification of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (His-tag)
    1. For purification the pellet (2 L of culture) is thawed at room temperature and lysed by sonication while keeping the cells cooled on ice.
      Note: Five times for 30 sec; output, 25; Branson Sonifier 250.
    2. Sedimentation of cell debris at 200,000 x g for 60 min and 4 °C in an ultracentrifuge.
    3. The soluble fraction is filtered using a pore size of 0.2 μm to get rid of unwanted material which clogs the column.
    4. Then, the sample is loaded on a pre-equilibrated (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 10 mM imidazole, 0.5 mM thiamine pyrophosphate) gravity flow Ni-NTA fast-flow column with a bed volume of 4 ml.
    5. Protein purification is achieved via increasing the imidazole concentration from 10 to 20 mM during washing each with 40 ml buffer.
    6. The His-tagged PFR1 protein is eluted from the column with 10 ml buffer containing 100 mM imidazole. Nine elution fractions each 1.1 ml are collected.
    7. The protein concentration of the brownish main elution fractions 3 and 4 are immediately determined using A280.

  3. Aerobic expression of [2Fe2S] ferredoxins (Jacobs et al., 2009; Winkler et al., 2009) with minor changes
    1. E. coli BL21 (DE3) ΔiscR containing the expression plasmid pASK-IBA7-FDX is grown in Vogel Bonner minimal medium for 4 h after induction at A600 of 0.6.
    2. Cells are harvested, washed in Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), sedimented again and stored at -20 °C until purification.

  4. Anaerobic expression of HydA1 (Girbal et al., 2005; von Abendroth et al., 2008)
    1. Expression plasmid containing C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain is grown in CGM-medium and a glucose concentration of 60 g/L anaerobically in a batch fermenter over night at 35-37 °C and 100 rpm.
    2. Cells are harvested in an anaerobic tent analog to E. coli, resuspended in Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10% glycerol containing 10 mM sodium dithionite and stored at -20 °C until purification.

  5. Anaerobic expression of bacterial 2[4Fe4S] ferredoxin analog to HydA1 (Girbal et al., 2005; von Abendroth et al., 2008, Noth et al., 2013)
    1. Expression plasmid containing C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain is grown in CGM-medium and a glucose concentration of 60 g/L anaerobically in a batch fermenter over night at 35-37 °C and 100 rpm.
    2. Cells are harvested in an anaerobic tent analog to E. coli, resuspended in Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 10% glycerol containing 10 mM sodium dithionite and stored at -20 °C until purification.
  6. Anaerobic purification of StrepII-tagged proteins (C-E)
    1. All buffers used contain 2 mM sodium dithionite.
    2. For purification the cell pellet is thawed at room temperature and lysed by sonication while keeping the cells cooled on ice.
      Note: Five times for 30 sec; output, 25; Branson Sonifier 250.
    3. Sedimentation of cell debris at 200,000 x g for 60 min and 4 °C in an ultracentrifuge.
    4. Supernatant (40 ml) is incubated for 1 hour with 3.5 mg Avidin (Stock 50 mg.ml-1) at 4 °C.
    5. The soluble fraction is filtered using a poresize of 0.2 μm to get rid of biotinylated, complexed proteins and unwanted material which clogs the column.
    6. Then, the filtered solution is loaded on a Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) equilibrated 2 ml strep tactin gravity flow column.
    7. The unbound proteins are washed from the column using 80 ml Tris-HCl (pH 8.0).
    8. Elution is performed with 10 ml Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), d-desthiobiotin (0.8 mg/ml) in fractions of 1 ml.

Recipes

  1. 0.1 M Tris buffer (pH 8) (1,000 ml)
    Mix 12.114 g of Tris base with 800 ml dH2O
    Add 100 ml Glycerol
    pH to 8 with HCl
    Add ddH2O to 1,000 ml
    Autoclave for 20 min at 121 °C
    Store at 4 °C
  2. Pre-equilibrated gravity flow Ni-NTA
    0.1 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8)
    10 mM imidazole
    0.5 mM thiamine pyrophosphate

Acknowledgments

Aerobic expression of [2Fe2S] ferredoxins was adapted from Jacobs et al. (2009). Anaerobic expression and purification of the 2[4Fe4S] bacterial type ferredoxin was done according to the previously published isolation of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Girbal et al. (2005) and von Abendroth et al. (2008), which is also presented here. Research on the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from C. reinhardtii was scientifically supported by Anja Hemschemeier and Thomas Happe.

References

  1. Noth, J., Krawietz, D., Hemschemeier, A. and Happe, T. (2013). Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is coupled to light-independent hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem 288(6): 4368-4377.
  2. Akhtar, M. K. and Jones, P. R. (2008). Deletion of iscR stimulates recombinant clostridial Fe-Fe hydrogenase activity and H2-accumulation in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78(5): 853-862.
  3. Girbal, L., von Abendroth, G., Winkler, M., Benton, P. M., Meynial-Salles, I., Croux, C., Peters, J. W., Happe, T. and Soucaille, P. (2005). Homologous and heterologous overexpression in Clostridium acetobutylicum and characterization of purified clostridial and algal Fe-only hydrogenases with high specific activities. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(5): 2777-2781.
  4. Jacobs, J., Pudollek, S., Hemschemeier, A. and Happe, T. (2009). A novel, anaerobically induced ferredoxin in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. FEBS Lett 583(2): 325-329.
  5. Sambrook, J. and Russell, D. W. (2006). Transformation of E. coli by Electroporation. CSH Protoc 2006(1).
  6. Vogel, H. J. and Bonner, D. M. (1956). Acetylornithinase of Escherichia coli: partial purification and some properties. J Biol Chem 218(1): 97-106.
  7. von Abendroth, G., Stripp, S., Silakov, A., Croux, C., Soucaille, P., Girbal, L. and Happe, T. (2008). Optimized over-expression of [FeFe] hydrogenases with high specific activity in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Inter J Hydrogen Energy 33(21): 6076-6081.
  8. Winkler, M., Kuhlgert, S., Hippler, M. and Happe, T. (2009). Characterization of the key step for light-driven hydrogen evolution in green algae. J Biol Chem 284(52): 36620-36627.


How to cite: Noth, J. (2013). Heterologous Production and Anaerobic Purification of His- and StrepII-tagged Recombinant Proteins . Bio-protocol 3(17): e881. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.881; Full Text



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