Neurons consist of four elements, the soma, dendrite, axon and terminal. They work in concert as the input (soma and dendrite) and output (axon and terminal) parts of neuronal transmission. To function and maintain neuronal activity and metabolisms, proteins and organelles should be transported from soma to terminal via anterograde axonal transport, and also from terminal to soma via retrograde transport. By utilizing these transport systems, neural projection is traced by injecting tracers into local sites of interest. Furthermore, neurochemical properties, such as glutamatergic and GABAergic, can be determined by combining retrograde and anterograde tracing with fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.
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