Asthma is a complex disease of the airways primarily mediated by T helper 2 cells and innate lymphoid type 2 cells ( Licona et al.,2013). Mice do not develop spontaneous asthma and therefore models have been developed for the assessment of key processes that underlie human pathology (Nial et al.,2008). Exposure to House Dust Mite (HDM) extract induces many key features of acute airway inflammation including elevated IgE levels, eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, epithelial hypertrophy and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR) in response to methacholine (Hammad et al., 2009; Dullaers et al., 2012; Coquet et al., 2015). The exact dose and duration of exposure to HDM can affect the type and extent of inflammation. In our case, we start with a low sensitizing dose that is increased on challenge, while others use differing schedules or a higher antigen concentration during sensitization of mice (Hondowicz et al., 2016; Trompette et al., 2014; Zaiss et al., 2015). We believe that using a low sensitizing dose more accurately separates the primary and secondary immune responses and reduces the possibility that HDM given during sensitization continues to fuel the immune response during challenge (Coquet et al., 2015; Plantinga et al., 2013). Here, we outline in text, pictures and video how to administer HDM extracts or cytokines via the intranasal route and briefly touch upon the subsequent analysis of inflammation in the airways [covered otherwise in ( Han et al., 2013)].
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