In this protocol, to analyze PSII activity in photosynthesis, we measure the Fv/Fm (Fv=Fm ± Fo) value (Fo and Fm are the minimum and maximum values of chlorophyll fluorescence of dark-adapted leaves, respectively). Fv/Fm is a reliable marker of photo- inhibition (Krause et al., 1988). Chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves was measured at room temperature using a photosynthesis yield analyzer (MINI- PAM, Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) and a pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometer (TEACHING-PAM, Walz, Effeltrich, Germany).
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