Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) molecules, linear chains containing hundreds of orthophosphate (Pi) residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds are abundant in every cell in nature. These molecules are widely distributed among bacteria, including key pathogens, and eukaryotes, poly P is present in organelles, including nuclei, mitochondria, and vesicles.
Remarkable properties of this molecule as a polyanion have been discovered and have made it suited for a crucial role in the emergence of cells on earth. Poly P is essential for bacterial responses to stresses and starvation, motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and virulence and essential for survival. Polymers of different lengths are present in different locations and have different roles in the cell.
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