Biomineralization in vertebrates has both physiological and pathological aspects. Physiological mineralization is essential for proper development and function of hard tissues, such as bone, teeth, and growth plate cartilage, but it does not occur in soft tissues. Pathological ectopic mineralization, in contrast, occurs in soft tissues, including blood vessels, kidney, articular cartilage, and cardiovascular tissue. Here, we describe the simple method for detecting and measuring the presence of mineralized nodules in cardiac ventricular fibroblasts by using von Kossa and alizarin red S staining, and a colorimetric method for calcium quantification, respectively.
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