An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), also referred to as mobility shift electrophoresis, a gel shift assay, gel mobility shift assay, band shift assay, or gel retardation assay, is a common technique used to study protein-DNA or protein-RNA interactions. The control lane (the DNA/RNA probe without protein present) will contain a single band corresponding to the unbound DNA or RNA fragment. If the protein is capable of binding to the fragment, the lane with protein present will contain another band that represents the larger, less mobile complex of nucleic acid probe bound to the protein, which is 'shifted' up on the gel (since it has moved more slowly). Here, a protocol to carry out an EMSA assay is described.
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