ROS-induced DNA damage is repaired in living cells within a temporal and spatial context, and chromatin structure is critical to a consideration of DNA repair processes in situ. It’s well known that chromatin remodeling factors participate in many DNA damage repair pathways, indicating the importance of chromatin remodeling in facilitating DNA damage repair. To date, there has been no method to induce site-specific oxidative DNA damage in living cells. Therefore, it is not known whether the DNA repair mechanisms differ within active or condensed chromatin. We recently established a novel method, DTG (Damage Targeted at one Genome-site), to study DNA damage response of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage in living cell at one genome loci with active or inactive transcription. For this, we integrated a tetracycline responsive elements (TRE) cassette (~90 kb) at X-chromosome in U2OS cells (Lan et al., 2010), then fused KillerRed (KR), a light-stimulated ROS-inducer which can specifically produce ROS-induced DNA damage, to a tet-repressor (tetR-KR, OFF) or a transcription activator (TA-KR, ON) (Lan et al., 2014) (Figure 1). TetR-KR or TA-KR binds to the TRE cassette and induces ROS damage under hetero- or euchromatin states, respectively. How chromatin states regulate the DNA damage response processes can be examined by using this powerful method.
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