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This protocol was developed in a study aimed to determine the cellular localization of the lysin of pneumococcal phage SV1 (Frias et al., 2013). We obtained proteins from the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae by elution with choline or those secreted to the medium. The analysis by Western blot of these fractions allowed us to demonstrate that the phage lysin localizes to the cell wall, associating with choline residues in the teichoic acids. Hence, protein extracts can be used to determine the localization of uncharacterized proteins and can also be useful for other biochemical analyses such as protein identification. This protocol can be easily adapted to different pneumococcal strains and growth conditions and it is well suited to isolate other proteins of interest.

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Preparation of Pneumococcal Proteins for Western Blot Analysis
制备肺炎球菌蛋白用于蛋白印迹检测

微生物学 > 微生物生物化学 > 蛋白质 > 免疫检测
作者: Maria João Frias
Maria João FriasAffiliation: Instituto de Microbiologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
For correspondence: mfrias@fm.ul.pt
Bio-protocol author page: a654
José Melo-Cristino
José Melo-CristinoAffiliation: Instituto de Microbiologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Bio-protocol author page: a656
 and Mário Ramirez
Mário RamirezAffiliation: Instituto de Microbiologia, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
For correspondence: ramirez@fm.ul.pt
Bio-protocol author page: a505
Vol 3, Iss 13, 7/5/2013, 2378 views, 0 Q&A, How to cite
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.807

[Abstract] This protocol was developed in a study aimed to determine the cellular localization of the lysin of pneumococcal phage SV1 (Frias et al., 2013). We obtained proteins from the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae by elution with choline or those secreted to the medium. The analysis by Western blot of these fractions allowed us to demonstrate that the phage lysin localizes to the cell wall, associating with choline residues in the teichoic acids. Hence, protein extracts can be used to determine the localization of uncharacterized proteins and can also be useful for other biochemical analyses such as protein identification. This protocol can be easily adapted to different pneumococcal strains and growth conditions and it is well suited to isolate other proteins of interest.

Materials and Reagents

  1. Pneumococcal cells
  2. Mitomycin C (MitC) (0.1 μg/ml) (Sigma-Aldrich, catalog number: M0503)
  3. 1x PBS (10x PBS pH 7.2) (Life Technologies, Gibco®/Invitrogen®, catalog number: 70013-016)
  4. 50 mM Tris pH 7.5
  5. 2% (w/v) Choline chloride in 1x PBS (Sigma-Aldrich, catalog number: C7527)
  6. NaCl (AppliChem, catalog number: A46615000)
  7. Tris-HCl (Bio-Rad Laboratories, catalog number: 161-0799)
  8. Glycerol (AppliChem, catalog number: A2364, 5000)
  9. SDS (Bio-Rad Laboratories, catalog number: 161-0416)
  10. β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma-Aldrich, catalog number: M3148)
  11. Bromophenol blue (Bio-Rad Laboratories, catalog number: 161-0404)
  12. Casamino acids
  13. L-Tryptophan
  14. L-Cysteine.HCl
  15. Glutamine
  16. Adenosine
  17. Uridine
  18. Nicotinic acid
  19. Pyridoxine
  20. Ca-pantothenate
  21. Thiamine-HCl
  22. Riboflavin
  23. Biotin
  24. Asparagine
  25. Casein-based semisynthetic medium C+Y (Lacks and Hotchkiss, 1960) (see Recipes)
  26. Loading buffer 5x (see Recipes)
  27. C+Y with 2% choline chloride (see Recipes)

Equipment

  1. Water bath at 37 °C to grow bacterial cultures
  2. Cell density meter (Biochrom WPA CO8000 Cell Density Meter) (Biochrom, catalog number: 80-3000-45)
  3. Centrifuge
  4. 0.2 μm low-binding-protein membrane (DISMIC-03CP) (Advantec, catalog number: 03CP020AS)
  5. 0.22 μm membrane filter (Frilabo, catalog number: 1520012)
  6. Amicon Ultra-15 centrifugal filter unit, cut-off 10 kDa (Merck Millipore, catalog number: UFC901024)
  7. Western blot equipment

Procedure


I.   Extraction of choline-binding proteins by choline wash

  1. Grow lysogenic cells without holin activity, hence incapable of lysis, in C+Y at 37 °C until OD600 nm of approximately 0.9 is reached (overnight culture). We used a lysogenic strain since this protocol was developed to determine the localization of the phage lysin. Moreover, since holin function activates phage-mediated lysis, we eliminated holin activity in this strain to avoid possible phage lysin escape (Frias et al., 2013).
  2. Dilute 1:100 in 7 ml of fresh C+Y and continue incubation at 37 °C to an OD600 nm of 0.2-0.25, which takes approximately 2 h. Then, induce the phage by treating with Mitomycin C (MitC) at a final concentration of 0.1 μg/ml or left untreated as control.
  3. Take samples (7 ml) at different time points, for instance in 20 min-intervals, after MitC treatment. In the case of untreated cultures, collect the samples at the same time points after the culture reached OD600 nm 0.2-0.25.
  4. Harvest the cells by centrifugation (3,200 x g for 10 min at 4 °C).
  5. Wash the cells once with 0.5 culture volumes (3.5 ml) of cold 1x PBS.
  6. To obtain the total cell pellet fraction, suspended the cells in 200 μl of 50 mM Tris pH 7.5 and store at -20 °C.
  7. For choline wash, gently suspend the PBS washed cells (in step 5) in 200 μl of 2% choline chloride (w/v) prepared in 1x PBS and incubate 30 min at 4 °C without agitation to elute the choline binding proteins (avoiding cell lysis).
  8. As control for the specificity of the choline wash in removing only choline binding proteins, incubate cells in the same conditions with 1x PBS or 2% (w/v) NaCl prepared in 1x PBS.
  9. Collect bacteria by centrifugation (3,200 x g for 15 min at 4 °C). To obtain the cell pellet fraction after choline extraction, wash the pellet once with 0.5 volumes of cold 1x PBS, suspended in 200 μl of 50 mM Tris pH 7.5 and store at -20 °C.
  10. Filter the supernatant, which corresponds to the choline wash fraction, through a 0.2 μm low-binding-protein membrane to ensure the removal of all bacteria. Store at -20 °C.
  11. Separate proteins on SDS-PAGE: Boil 5-15 μl of the pellet fractions and 45 μl of the supernatant fractions for 5 min with 1x loading buffer and load onto the gel. You will need the antibody for your protein to visualize the protein on Western blot and it is important to control for possible cell lysis using an antibody for a known cytoplasmic protein (Figure 1). When comparing the amount of the protein of interest between samples, do not forget to normalize by a loading protein control. As an alternative to loading equal sample volumes followed by normalization, determine the protein concentration of each sample and load the same amount of total protein in each lane.


    Figure 1. Choline extracts increasing amounts of phage lysin (a choline-binding protein) from the cell surface. Equal aliquots were taken at the indicated times from MitC-treated lysogenic cultures (without holin activity). Cells were harvested by centrifugation and directly suspended in Tris buffer (cell pellet fraction, P) or choline washed (choline wash fraction, Scholine). As control, cells collected at 60 and 80 min were washed with PBS (SPBS). All fractions were tested by Western blotting for the phage lysin Svl (37 kDa) presence with the appropriate antibody. P and S fractions were also tested for the cytoplasmic elongation factor Ts (43 kDa) to control for cell lysis (Frias et al., 2013).

II.  Preparation of culture medium fractions in the presence of 2% choline

  1. Grow lysogenic cells without holin activity in C+Y at 37 °C until OD600 nm of approximately 0.9 is reached (overnight culture).
  2. Dilute 1:100 in 7 ml of fresh C+Y and continue incubation at 37 °C to an OD600 nm of 0.2-0.25.
  3. Collect cells by centrifugation (3,200 x g for 10 min at 4 °C) and discard the supernatant.
  4. Suspend lysogens in 7 ml of C+Y with 2% choline chloride, treat the cells with MitC (0.1 μg/ml) to induce the phage and continue the incubation (alternatively, bacteria can be grown in the absence of choline).
  5. Take samples (7 ml) at different time points after MitC treatment.
  6. Harvest the cells by centrifugation (3,200 x g for 10 min at 4 °C). To obtain the cell pellet fraction, wash the cells once with 0.5 volumes of cold 1x PBS, suspend in 200 μl of 50 mM Tris pH 7.5 and store at -20 °C.
  7. Collect the supernatant, which corresponds to the culture medium fraction, and filter through a 0.22 μm membrane filter. Besides the secreted proteins, this fraction also includes the choline binding proteins which are eluted from the pneumococcal surface in the presence of 2% choline chloride in the growth medium. Note that the choline binding proteins can be extracted using procedure described in Section I.
  8. Concentrate the supernatant 35-fold (final volume of 200 μl) by centrifugation (3,200 x g at 4 °C for approximately 15 min) on an Amicon Ultra-15 centrifugal filter unit (cut-off 10 kDa). It is recommended that the molecular weight cut off of the membrane is at least 3 times smaller than the molecular weight of the protein being retained. Since we wanted to study the 37 kDa phage lysin, we selected a 10 kDa cut off.
  9. Note that this experiment also allows to test for the membrane permeabilizing effect of a specific compound since in this case one expects the release of cytoplasmic proteins into the culture medium. If this is the goal of the experiment, after challenging the (MitC-treated) cultures with the compound of interest in step 4, the samples are processed as described in the following steps.
  10. Separate proteins on SDS-PAGE: Boil 5-15 μl of the pellet fractions and 45 μl of the supernatant fractions for 5 min with 1x loading buffer and load onto the gels. You will need the antibody for your protein to visualize the protein on Western blot and it is important to control for eventual cell lysis using an antibody for a known cytoplasmic protein.

Recipes

  1. C+Y (pH 8), 463 ml
    400 ml of PreC (A)
    13 ml of Supplement (B)
    10 ml of 1 mg/ml (w/v) glutamine in water
    10 ml of Adams III (C)
    5 ml of 2% (w/v) pyruvate in water
    15 ml of 1 M potassium phosphate (KPO4) buffer pH 8
    10 ml of 5% (w/v) yeast extract in water.
    (A) PreC, 2,000 ml
    2.42 g of sodium acetate anhydrous
    10 g of casamino acids
    0.01 g of L-Tryptophan
    0.1 g of L-Cysteine.HCl
    Add dH2O to 2,000 ml
    Adjust to pH 7.4-7.6
    Autoclave
    Store at room temperature.
    (B) Supplement, 213 ml
    30 ml of 3 in 1 Salts (D)
    60 ml of 20% (w/v) glucose in water
    3 ml of 50% (w/v) sucrose in water
    60 ml of 2 mg/ml (w/v) adenosine in water
    60 ml of 2 mg/ml (w/v) uridine in water
    Filter sterilize (0.22 μm)
    Store at 4 °C
    (C) Adams III, 400 ml
    0.8 g of asparagine
    0.08 g of choline
    0.64 ml of 1% (w/v) CaCl2 in water
    64 ml of Adams I (E)
    16 ml of Adams II (F)
    Add dH2O to 400 ml
    Filter sterilize (0.22 μm)
    Store in the dark at 4 °C
    (D) 3 in 1 salts, 100 ml
    10 g of MgCl2.6H2O
    0.05 g of CaCl2 anhydrous
    0.02 ml of 0.1 M MnSO4.4H2O
    Add dH2O to 100 ml
    Autoclave
    Store at room temperature
    (E) Adams I, 200 ml
    0.03 g of nicotinic acid
    0.035 g of pyridoxine
    0.12 g of Ca-pantothenate
    0.032 g of thiamine-HCl
    0.014 g of riboflavin
    0.06 ml of 0.5 mg/ml (w/v) biotin in water
    Add dH2O to 200 ml
    Filter sterilize (0.22 μm)
    Store in the dark at 4 °C
    (F) Adams II, 100 ml
    0.05 g of FeSO4.7H2O
    0.05 g of CuSO4.5H2O
    0.05 g of ZnSO4.7H2O
    0.02 g of MnCl2.4H2O
    1 ml of HCl concentrated
    Add dH2O to 100 ml
    Autoclave
    Store at room temperature
  2. 5x loading buffer (62.5 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 20% glycerol, 2% SDS, 10% β-mercaptoethanol), 8 ml
    1 ml of 0.5 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.8) 
    1.6 ml of Glycerol
    1.6 ml of 10% SDS
    0.8 ml of β-mercaptoethanol
    0.4 ml of 0.5% (w/v) bromophenol blue in water
    Add dH2O to 8 ml
    Store at -20 °C
  3. C+Y with 2% choline chloride, 100 ml
    2 g of choline chloride
    Add C+Y to 100 ml
    Filter sterilize (0.22 μm)
    Store at 4 °C

References

  1. Frias, M. J., Melo-Cristino, J. and Ramirez, M. (2013). Export of the pneumococcal phage SV1 lysin requires choline-containing teichoic acids and is holin-independent. Mol Microbiol 87(2): 430-445.
  2. Lacks, S. and Hotchkiss, R. D. (1960). A study of the genetic material determining an enzyme in Pneumococcus. Biochim Biophys Acta 39: 508-518.


How to cite this protocol: Frias, M. J., Melo-Cristino, J. and Ramirez, M. (2013). Preparation of Pneumococcal Proteins for Western Blot Analysis. Bio-protocol 3(13): e807. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.807; Full Text



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