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Past Issues in Bio-protocol

Volume: 6 Issue: 2January 20, 2016

  • All fields (14)
  • Cancer Biology (1)
  • Microbiology (4)
  • Molecular Biology (1)
  • Plant Science (8)

Cancer Biology

A Technique for the Measurement of in vitro Phospholipid Synthesis via Radioactive Labeling Authors:  Lucia Rodriguez-Berdini and Gabriel O. Ferrero, date: 01/20/2016, view: 3146, Q&A: 0
This is an assay designed to examine the radioactive phosphorous incorporation when the molecule is being synthesized, which means that only de novo synthesized phospholipids can be detected. Thus, with this technique it is possible to detect in vitro phospholipid synthesis under different required experimental conditions respect ...
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Microbiology

A Reliable Method for Phytophthora cajani Isolation, Sporangia, Zoospore Production and in Planta Infection of Pigeonpea Authors:  Mamta Sharma and Raju Ghosh, date: 01/20/2016, view: 3019, Q&A: 0
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture. High levels of protein in pigeonpea make it a valuable protein source for developing countries. Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora cajani (P. cajani) is a potential threat to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production, ...
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Preparation of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Myxococcus xanthus Authors:  James E. Berleman, Marcin Zemla, Jonathan P Remis and Manfred Auer, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2547, Q&A: 0
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) represent a unique sub-cellular compartment of bacteria that may act as a scaffold for various extracellular activities, including intercellular signaling. Myxococcus xanthus (M. xanthus) is a predatory bacterium that engages in cell-cell behaviors such as fruiting body formation and contact ...
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HBV Infection in Human Hepatocytes and Quantification of Encapsidated HBV DNA Authors:  Kai Li, Seiichi Sato and Akinori Takaoka, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2716, Q&A: 0
Human hepatic cancer cell lines such as HepG2, Huh7, and HLE cannot get infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) due to lack of an HBV receptor(s). Transfection with HBV genome has so far been referred as a tool to mimic HBV infection. However, since sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) was identified as a functional receptor for HBV ...
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Infection of Human Hepatocyte-chimeric Mice with HBV and in vivo Treatment with εRNA Authors:  Seiichi Sato, Kai Li and Akinori Takaoka, date: 01/20/2016, view: 1930, Q&A: 0
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause both acute and chronic disease in human liver with potentially high risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer. The host range of non-human primates susceptible to this virus is limited. Therefore, experimental studies with human hepatocyte-chimeric mice provide an invaluable source of information regarding the biology ...
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Molecular Biology

Identification of RNA-binding Proteins by RNA Ligand-based cDNA Expression Library Screening Authors:  Min Young Kim, Jong Joo Lee and Chul Geun Kim, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2121, Q&A: 0
We previously reported when a portion of the Requiem (REQ/DPF2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR), referred to as G8, was overexpressed in K562 cells, β-globin expression was induced, suggesting that the 3’UTR of REQ mRNA plays a physiological role (Kim et al., 2014). To identify trans-acting factors that ...
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Plant Science

Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Infection Assay Using Soybean Roots Authors:  Benjamin F. Matthews and Reham M. Youssef, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2494, Q&A: 0
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines), an obligate parasite of plants, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean, causing $469 to $818 million in soybean yield losses annually in the United States. However, there are no soybean cultivars available that are resistant to all SCN populations. Therefore, much research is being ...
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Agrobacterium rhizogenes-Based Transformation of Soybean Roots to Form Composite Plants Authors:  Benjamin F. Matthews and Reham M. Youssef, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2510, Q&A: 0
Transgenic soybean roots of composite plants are a powerful tool to rapidly test the function of genes and activity of gene promoters. No tissue culture is needed, thus avoiding loss of valuable material due to contamination. This is a simple technique that requires less training and care than tissue culture techniques. Furthermore, it takes less ...
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Cytohistochemical Determination of Calcium Deposition in Plant Cells Authors:  Wan-Jun Zhang and Tao Wang, date: 01/20/2016, view: 1893, Q&A: 0
Calcium plays important roles in maintaining plant cellular structure and also acts as a key secondary messenger in intercellular signaling. Thirty years ago, methods of detecting calcium in sub-cellular level had been established (Stockwell and Hanchey, 1982; Borgers et al., 1982) and reviewed extensively (Wick and Heplerm, 1982). We had ...
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Detection of Hydroxyproline O-galactoside by LC/MS Authors:  Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi and Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi, date: 01/20/2016, view: 1887, Q&A: 0
Hydroxyproline (Hyp) O-galactosylation is a plant-specific post-translational modification found in extracellular glycoproteins such as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). Hyp O-galactosylation is mediated by Hyp O-galactosyltransferase (HPGT) that catalyzes the transfer of a D-galactopyranosyl residue to the hydroxyl group ...
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LC/MS-based Detection of Hydroxyproline O-galactosyltransferase Activity Authors:  Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi and Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi, date: 01/20/2016, view: 1989, Q&A: 0
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are plant-specific extracellular glycoproteins regulating a variety of processes during growth and development. AGP biosynthesis involves O-galactosylation of hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues followed by a stepwise elongation of the complex sugar chains. The initial Hyp O-galactosylation is mediated ...
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Cotyledon Wounding of Arabidopsis Seedlings Authors:  Debora Gasperini, Ivan F. Acosta and Edward E. Farmer, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2872, Q&A: 0
Damage to plant organs through both biotic and abiotic injury is very common in nature. Arabidopsis thaliana 5-day-old (5-do) seedlings represent an excellent system in which to study plant responses to mechanical wounding, both at the site of the damage and in distal unharmed tissues. Seedlings of wild type, transgenic or mutant lines ...
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Analysis of Starch Synthase Activities in Wheat Grains using Native-PAGE Author:  Zhongyi Li, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2815, Q&A: 0
Starch synthases are one class of key enzymes involving in the synthesis of cereal starch, which transfer glucose from ADP-glucose to the non-reducing end of pre-existing α-(1-4)-liked glucosyl chains of amylopectin. This protocol is highly reproducible for assaying activities for starch synthase I and IIIa in wheat and barley endosperm at ...
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Virus-based MicroRNA Silencing Authors:  Jinping Zhao and Yule Liu, date: 01/20/2016, view: 2441, Q&A: 0
Virus-based microRNA silencing (VbMS) is a viable and prompt method to screen and characterize the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants. The Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VbMS method was originally developed by the Yule Liu's group (Sha et al., 2014) using miRNA target mimic (TM) methodology. Here, we describe the ...
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