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Carolina B. López


Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, 2002

Current position

Assistant Professor (tenure track), Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 2010


(Senior authorship indicated with a star)

  1. Xue, J.*, Chambers, B. S., Hensley, S. E. and López, C. B. (2016). Propagation and Characterization of Influenza Virus Stocks That Lack High Levels of Defective Viral Genomes and Hemagglutinin Mutations. Front Microbiol 7: 326.
  2. Benitez, A. A., Panis, M., Xue, J., Varble, A., Shim, J. V., Frick, A. L., López, C. B., Sachs, D. and tenOever, B. R. (2015). In Vivo RNAi Screening Identifies MDA5 as a Significant Contributor to the Cellular Defense against Influenza A Virus. Cell Rep 11(11): 1714-1726.
  3. Xu, J.*, Mercado-López, X., Grier, J. T., Kim, W. K., Chun, L. F., Irvine, E. B., Del Toro Duany, Y., Kell, A., Hur, S., Gale, M., Jr., Raj, A. and López, C. B. (2015). Identification of a Natural Viral RNA Motif That Optimizes Sensing of Viral RNA by RIG-I. MBio 6(5): e01265-01215.
  4. Sun, Y.*, Jain, D., Koziol-White, C. J., Genoyer, E., Gilbert, M., Tapia, K., Panettieri, R. A., Jr., Hodinka, R. L. and López, C. B. (2015). Immunostimulatory Defective Viral Genomes from Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promote a Strong Innate Antiviral Response during Infection in Mice and Humans. PLoS Pathog 11(9): e1005122.
  5. Kim, W. K.*, Jain, D., Sánchez, M. D., Koziol-White, C. J., Matthews, K., Ge, M. Q., Haczku, A., Panettieri, R. A., Jr., Frieman, M. B. and López, C. B. (2014). Deficiency of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 results in exacerbated chronic postviral lung inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 189(4): 437-448.
  6. López, C. B.* (2014). Defective viral genomes: critical danger signals of viral infections. J Virol 88(16): 8720-8723.
  7. Mercado-López, X.*, Cotter, C. R., Kim, W. K., Sun, Y., Muñoz, L., Tapia, K. and López, C. B. (2013). Highly immunostimulatory RNA derived from a Sendai virus defective viral genome. Vaccine 31(48): 5713-5721.
  8. Tapia, K.*, Kim, W. K., Sun, Y., Mercado-López, X., Dunay, E., Wise, M., Adu, M. and López, C. B. (2013). Defective viral genomes arising in vivo provide critical danger signals for the triggering of lung antiviral immunity. PLoS Pathog 9(10): e1003703. *Featured Article.
  9. Hermesh, T.*, Moran, T. M., Jain, D. and López, C. B. (2012). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects mice during respiratory virus infections. PLoS One 7(5): e37334.
  10. Leung, L. W., Park, M. S., Martinez, O., Valmas, C., López, C. B. and Basler, C. F. (2011). Ebolavirus VP35 suppresses IFN production from conventional but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunol Cell Biol 89(7): 792-802.
  11. Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Dutta, D. J., Argaw, A. T., Bonnamain, V., Seto, J., Braun, D. A., Zameer, A., Hayot, F., López, C. B., Raine, C. S. and John, G. R. (2011). Proapoptotic and antiapoptotic actions of Stat1 versus Stat3 underlie neuroprotective and immunoregulatory functions of IL-11. J Immunol 187(3): 1129-1141.
  12. Hu, J., Nudelman, G., Shimoni, Y., Kumar, M., Ding, Y., López, C., Hayot, F., Wetmur, J. G. and Sealfon, S. C. (2011). Role of cell-to-cell variability in activating a positive feedback antiviral response in human dendritic cells. PLoS One 6(2): e16614.
  13. López, C. B.* and Hermesh, T. (2011). Systemic responses during local viral infections: type I IFNs sound the alarm. Curr Opin Immunol 23(4): 495-499.
  14. Harty, R. N., Schmitt, A. P., Bouamr, F., López, C. B. and Krummenacher, C. (2011). Virus budding/host interactions. Adv Virol 2011: 963192.
  15. Neil, R. C., Tapia, K. A., Dandapani, A., MacArthur, B. D., López, C. B. and Ma’ayan, A. (2011). Stochastic model of virus and defective interfering particle spread across mammalian cells with immune response. Q-bio.PE, arXiv:1108.4901.
  16. Cotter, C., Kim, W. K., Nguyen, M., Yount, J., López, C. B., Blaho and Moran, T. M. (2011).The Virion Host Shut-off (vhs) Protein of HSV-1 Blocks the Replication-Independent Activation of NF-κB in Dendritic Cells. J Virol Sept 21. EPub Ahead of Print.
  17. Cotter, C., Nguyen, M. L., López, C. B., Blaho, J. A. and Moran, T. M. (2010). Virion-Associated Vhs Protein Blocks the Activation of Human Dendritic Cells during a Productive HSV-1 Infection. Plos One 5:e8684.
  18. Hermesh, T.*, Moltedo, B., Moran, T. M. and López, C. B. (2010). Antiviral instruction of bone marrow leukocytes during respiratory viral infections. Cell Host Microbe 7(5): 343-353. * Featured Article and Previewed by D. Woodland.
  19. Yount, J. S., Moltedo, B., Yang, Y. Y., Charron, G., Moran, T. M., López, C. B. and Hang, H. C. (2010). Palmitoylome profiling reveals S-palmitoylation-dependent antiviral activity of IFITM3. Nat Chem Biol 6(8): 610-614. *Evaluated in the Faculty of 1000 website.
  20. Hermesh, T., Moltedo, B., López, C. B. and Moran, T. M. (2010). Buying time-the immune system determinants of the incubation period to respiratory viruses. Viruses 2(11): 2541-2558.
  21. Moltedo, B., López, C. B., Pazos, M., Becker, M. I., Hermesh, T. and Moran, T. M. (2009). Cutting edge: stealth influenza virus replication precedes the initiation of adaptive immunity. J Immunol 183(6): 3569-3573.
  22. Gurfein, B. T., Zhang, Y., López, C. B., Argaw, A. T., Zameer, A., Moran, T. M. and John, G. R. (2009). IL-11 regulates autoimmune demyelination. J Immunol 183(7): 4229-4240.
  23. Moran, T. M.* and López, C. B. (2009). Host Immune Response to Influenza Virus in “RNA Viruses: Host gene response to Infection”. Yang, D. (ed). World Scientific Publishing, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  24. Yount, J. S.*, Gitlin, L., Moran, T. M. and López, C. B. (2008). MDA5 participates in the detection of paramyxovirus infection and is essential for the early activation of dendritic cells in response to Sendai Virus defective interfering particles. J Immunol 180(7): 4910-4918.
  25. Escribese, M. M., Kraus, T., Rhee, E., Fernandez-Sesma, A., López, C. B. and Moran, T. M. (2008). Estrogen inhibits dendritic cell maturation to RNA viruses. Blood 112(12): 4574-4584.
  26. Yount, J. S.*, Moran, T. M. and López, C. B. (2007). Cytokine-independent upregulation of MDA5 in viral infection. J Virol 81(13): 7316-7319.
  27. Trumpfheller, C., Finke, J. S., López, C. B., Moran, T. M., Moltedo, B., Soares, H., Huang, Y., Schlesinger, S. J., Park, C. G., Nussenzweig, M. C., Granelli-Piperno, A. and Steinman, R. M. (2006). Intensified and protective CD4+ T cell immunity in mice with anti-dendritic cell HIV gag fusion antibody vaccine. J Exp Med 203(3): 607-617.
  28. López, C. B., Yount, J. S., Hermesh, T. and Moran, T. M. (2006). Sendai virus infection induces efficient adaptive immunity independently of type I interferons. J Virol 80(9): 4538-4545.
  29. Yount, J. S.*, Kraus, T. A., Horvath, C. M., Moran, T. M. and López, C. B. (2006). A novel role for viral-defective interfering particles in enhancing dendritic cell maturation. J Immunol 177(7): 4503-4513.
  30. López, C. B., Yount, J. S. and Moran, T. M. (2006). Toll-like receptor-independent triggering of dendritic cell maturation by viruses. J Virol 80(7): 3128-3134.
  31. Silva, M. A., López, C. B., Riverin, F., Oligny, L., Menezes, J. and Seidman, E. G. (2004). Characterization and distribution of colonic dendritic cells in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 10(5): 504-512.
  32. López, C. B., Moltedo, B., Alexopoulou, L., Bonifaz, L., Flavell, R. A. and Moran, T. M. (2004). TLR-independent induction of dendritic cell maturation and adaptive immunity by negative-strand RNA viruses. J Immunol 173(11): 6882-6889. *Evaluated in the Faculty of 1000 website.
  33. López, C. B., Garcia-Sastre, A., Williams, B. R. and Moran, T. M. (2003). Type I interferon induction pathway, but not released interferon, participates in the maturation of dendritic cells induced by negative-strand RNA viruses. J Infect Dis 187(7): 1126-1136.
  34. López, C. B., Moran, T. M., Schulman, J. L. and Fernandez-Sesma, A. (2002). Antiviral immunity and the role of dendritic cells. Int Rev Immunol 21(4-5): 339-353.
  35. López, C. B., Fernandez-Sesma, A., Schulman, J. L. and Moran, T. M. (2001). Myeloid dendritic cells stimulate both Th1 and Th2 immune responses depending on the nature of the antigen. J Interferon Cytokine Res 21(9): 763-773.
  36. López, C. B., Fernandez-Sesma, A., Czelusniak, S. M., Schulman, J. L. and Moran, T. M. (2000). A mouse model for immunization with ex vivo virus-infected dendritic cells. Cell Immunol 206(2): 107-115.
  37. López, C. B., Rao, T. D., Feiner, H., Shapiro, R., Marks, J. R. and Frey, A. B. (1998). Repression of interleukin-2 mRNA translation in primary human breast carcinoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Cell Immunol 190(2): 141-155.
  38. López, C. B., Kalergis, A. M., Becker, M. I., Garbarino, J. A. and De Ioannes, A. E. (1998). CD8+ T cells are the effectors of the contact dermatitis induced by urushiol in mice and are regulated by CD4+ T cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 117(3): 194-201.
  39. Kalergis, A. M., López, C. B., Becker, M. I., Díaz, M. I., Sein, J., Garbarino, J. A. and De Ioannes, A. E. (1997). Modulation of fatty acid oxidation alters contact hypersensitivity to urushiols: role of aliphatic chain beta-oxidation in processing and activation of urushiols. J Invest Dermatol 108(1): 57-61.
Protocols by Carolina B. López
  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Mice and Detection of Viral Genomes in the Lung Using RT-qPCR
  2. Preparation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus with High or Low Content of Defective Viral Particles and Their Purification from Viral Stocks