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Andrew R Kirby


B.S. (open)

Current position

Visiting Scientist, Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK


  1. Posé, S., Kirby, A. R., Paniagua, C., Waldron, K. W., Morris, V. J., Quesada, M. A. and Mercado, J. A. (2015). The nanostructural characterization of strawberry pectins in pectate lyase or polygalacturonase silenced fruits elucidates their role in softening. Carbohydr Polym 132: 134-145.
  2. Paniagua, C., Posé, S., Morris, V. J., Kirby, A. R., Quesada, M. A. and Mercado, J. A. (2014). Fruit softening and pectin disassembly: an overview of nanostructural pectin modifications assessed by atomic force microscopy. Ann Bot 114(6): 1375-1383.
  3. Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Fuell, C., Pin, C., Tailford, L. E. and Juge, N. (2013). Mining the "glycocode"--exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy. FASEB J 27(6): 2342-2354.
  4. Westwood, M., Kirby, A. R., Parker, R. and Morris, V. J. (2012). Combined QCMD and AFM studies of lysozyme and poly-L-lysine-poly-galacturonic acid multilayers. Carbohydr Polym 89(4): 1222-1231.
  5. Pose, S., Kirby, A. R., Mercado, J. A. (2012). Structural characterization of cell wall pectin fractions in ripe strawberry fruits using AFM. Carbohyd Polym 88: 882-890.
  6. Kirby, A. R. (2011). Atomic force microscopy of plant cell walls. Methods Mol Biol 715: 169-178.
  7. Agbenorhevi, J. K., Kontogiorgos, V., Kirby, A. R., Morris, V. J. and Tosh, S. M. (2011). Rheological and microstructural investigation of oat beta-glucan isolates varying in molecular weight. Int J Biol Macromol 49(3): 369-377.
  8. Morris, V. J., Gromer, A., Kirby, A. R. (2011). Using AFM and force spectroscopy to determine pectin structure and (bio) functionality. Food Hydrocolloid 25: 230-237.
  9. Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Parker, M. L. (2010). Utilizing atomic force microscopy in Food Research. Food Technology 64: 32-37.
  10. Gromer, A., Penfold, R., Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Morris, V. J. (2010). Molecular basis of the emulsifying properties of sugar beet pectin studied by atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. Soft Matter 6 (2010): 3957–3969.
  11. Morris, V. J., Gromer, A. and Kirby, A. R. (2009). Architecture of intracellular networks in plant matrices. Struct Chem 20: 255-261.
  12. Gromer, A., Kirby, A. R., Gunning, A. P. and Morris, V. J. (2009). Interfacial structure of sugar beet pectin studied by atomic force microscopy. Langmuir 25(14): 8012-8018.
Protocols by Andrew R Kirby
  1. Pectin Nanostructure Visualization by Atomic Force Microscopy