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Jeffrey M. Milush


Ph.D. in Molecular Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2005

Current position

Assistant Professor
Director, UCSF/CFAR Core Immunology Laboratory and Division of Experimental Medicine Flow Cytometry Core


  1. Gurfein, B. T., Davidenko, O., Premenko-Lanier, M., Milush, J. M., Acree, M., Dallman, M. F., Touma, C., Palme, R., York, V. A., Fromentin, G., Darcel, N., Nixon, D. F. and Hecht, F. M. (2014). Environmental enrichment alters splenic immune cell composition and enhances secondary influenza vaccine responses in mice. Mol Med 20: 179-190.
  2. Ribeiro, S. P., Milush, J. M., Cunha-Neto, E., Kallas, E. G., Kalil, J., Somsouk, M., Hunt, P. W., Deeks, S. G., Nixon, D. F. and SenGupta, D. (2014). The CD8(+) memory stem T cell (T(SCM)) subset is associated with improved prognosis in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Virol 88(23): 13836-13844.
  3. Batista, M. D., Ho, E. L., Kuebler, P. J., Milush, J. M., Lanier, L. L., Kallas, E. G., York, V. A., Chang, D., Liao, W., Unemori, P., Leslie, K. S., Maurer, T. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). Skewed distribution of natural killer cells in psoriasis skin lesions. Exp Dermatol 22(1): 64-66.
  4. Perez, C. L.*, Milush, J. M.*, Buggert, M., Eriksson, E. M., Larsen, M. V., Liegler, T., Hartogensis, W., Bacchetti, P., Lund, O., Hecht, F. M., Nixon, D. F. and Karlsson, A. C. (2013). Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4(+) T cell depletion. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29(3): 602-612. (*Co-first authors)
  5. Batista, M. D., Tincati, C., Milush, J. M., Ho, E. L., Ndhlovu, L. C., York, V. A., Kallas, E. G., Kalil, J., Keating, S. M., Norris, P. J., Chang, D., Unemori, P., Leslie, K. S., Maurer, T., Liao, W. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One 8(2): e52144.
  6. Snyder-Cappione, J. E., Nixon, D. F., Chi, J. C., Nguyen, M. L., Kirby, C. K., Milush, J. M. and Koth, L. L. (2013). Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell exhaustion in sarcoidosis. Eur J Immunol 43(8): 2194-2205.
  7. Milush, J. M., Chen, H. L., Atteberry, G. and Sodora, D. L. (2013). Early detection of simian immunodeficiency virus in the central nervous system following oral administration to rhesus macaques. Front Immunol 4: 236.
  8. Milush, J. M., Lopez-Verges, S., York, V. A., Deeks, S. G., Martin, J. N., Hecht, F. M., Lanier, L. L. and Nixon, D. F. (2013). CD56negCD16(+) NK cells are activated mature NK cells with impaired effector function during HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology 10: 158.
  9. Eriksson, E. M., Milush, J. M., Ho, E. L., Batista, M. D., Holditch, S. J., Keh, C. E., Norris, P. J., Keating, S. M., Deeks, S. G., Hunt, P. W., Martin, J. N., Rosenberg, M. G., Hecht, F. M. and Nixon, D. F. (2012). Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity. Blood 119(3): 745-755.
  10. de Vos, G., Milush, J. M., Aaron, J., Pichardo, Y., York, V. A., Nazari, R., Rosenstreich, D., Nixon, D. F. and Wiznia, A. (2012). Peripheral CD8+ T-cell levels are decreased in atopic wheezing children aged less than 4 years. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 22(6): 442-444.
  11. Gurfein, B. T., Stamm, A. W., Bacchetti, P., Dallman, M. F., Nadkarni, N. A., Milush, J. M., Touma, C., Palme, R., Di Borgo, C. P., Fromentin, G., Lown-Hecht, R., Konsman, J. P., Acree, M., Premenko-Lanier, M., Darcel, N., Hecht, F. M. and Nixon, D. F. (2012). The calm mouse: an animal model of stress reduction. Mol Med 18: 606-617.
  12. Milush, J. M., Mir, K. D., Sundaravaradan, V., Gordon, S. N., Engram, J., Cano, C. A., Reeves, J. D., Anton, E., O'Neill, E., Butler, E., Hancock, K., Cole, K. S., Brenchley, J. M., Else, J. G., Silvestri, G. and Sodora, D. L. (2011). Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells. J Clin Invest 121(3): 1102-1110.
  13. Lopez-Verges, S., Milush, J. M., Schwartz, B. S., Pando, M. J., Jarjoura, J., York, V. A., Houchins, J. P., Miller, S., Kang, S. M., Norris, P. J., Nixon, D. F. and Lanier, L. L. (2011). Expansion of a unique CD57(+)NKG2Chi natural killer cell subset during acute human cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(36): 14725-14732.
  14. Durudas, A., Chen, H. L., Gasper, M. A., Sundaravaradan, V., Milush, J. M., Silvestri, G., Johnson, W., Giavedoni, L. D. and Sodora, D. L. (2011). Differential innate immune responses to low or high dose oral SIV challenge in Rhesus macaques. Curr HIV Res 9(5): 276-288.
  15.  Lopez-Verges, S., Milush, J. M., Pandey, S., York, V. A., Arakawa-Hoyt, J., Pircher, H., Norris, P. J., Nixon, D. F. and Lanier, L. L. (2010). CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset. Blood 116(19): 3865-3874.
  16. Milush, J. M., Long, B. R., Snyder-Cappione, J. E., Cappione, A. J., 3rd, York, V. A., Ndhlovu, L. C., Lanier, L. L., Michaelsson, J. and Nixon, D. F. (2009). Functionally distinct subsets of human NK cells and monocyte/DC-like cells identified by coexpression of CD56, CD7, and CD4. Blood 114(23): 4823-4831.
  17. Durudas, A., Milush, J. M., Chen, H. L., Engram, J. C., Silvestri, G. and Sodora, D. L. (2009). Elevated levels of innate immune modulators in lymph nodes and blood are associated with more-rapid disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. J Virol 83(23): 12229-12240.
  18. Kosub, D. A., Lehrman, G., Milush, J. M., Zhou, D., Chacko, E., Leone, A., Gordon, S., Silvestri, G., Else, J. G., Keiser, P., Jain, M. K. and Sodora, D. L. (2008). Gamma/Delta T-cell functional responses differ after pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus and nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections. J Virol 82(3): 1155-1165.
  19. Kosub, D. A., Durudas, A., Lehrman, G., Milush, J. M., Cano, C. A., Jain, M. K. and Sodora, D. L. (2008). Gamma/Delta T cell mRNA levels decrease at mucosal sites and increase at lymphoid sites following an oral SIV infection of macaques. Curr HIV Res 6(6): 520-530.
  20. Sumpter, B., Dunham, R., Gordon, S., Engram, J., Hennessy, M., Kinter, A., Paiardini, M., Cervasi, B., Klatt, N., McClure, H., Milush, J. M., Staprans, S., Sodora, D. L. and Silvestri, G. (2007). Correlates of preserved CD4(+) T cell homeostasis during natural, nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection of sooty mangabeys: implications for AIDS pathogenesis. J Immunol 178(3): 1680-1691.
  21. Milush, J. M., Stefano-Cole, K., Schmidt, K., Durudas, A., Pandrea, I. and Sodora, D. L. (2007). Mucosal innate immune response associated with a timely humoral immune response and slower disease progression after oral transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to rhesus macaques. J Virol 81(12): 6175-6186.
  22. Apetrei, C., Gautam, R., Sumpter, B., Carter, A. C., Gaufin, T., Staprans, S. I., Else, J., Barnes, M., Cao, R., Jr., Garg, S., Milush, J. M., Sodora, D. L., Pandrea, I. and Silvestri, G. (2007). Virus subtype-specific features of natural simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmm infection in sooty mangabeys. J Virol 81(15): 7913-7923.
  23. Gordon, S. N., Klatt, N. R., Bosinger, S. E., Brenchley, J. M., Milush, J. M., Engram, J. C., Dunham, R. M., Paiardini, M., Klucking, S., Danesh, A., Strobert, E. A., Apetrei, C., Pandrea, I. V., Kelvin, D., Douek, D. C., Staprans, S. I., Sodora, D. L. and Silvestri, G. (2007). Severe depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells in AIDS-free simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys. J Immunol 179(5): 3026-3034.
  24. Milush, J. M., Reeves, J. D., Gordon, S. N., Zhou, D., Muthukumar, A., Kosub, D. A., Chacko, E., Giavedoni, L. D., Ibegbu, C. C., Cole, K. S., Miamidian, J. L., Paiardini, M., Barry, A. P., Staprans, S. I., Silvestri, G. and Sodora, D. L. (2007). Virally induced CD4+ T cell depletion is not sufficient to induce AIDS in a natural host. J Immunol 179(5): 3047-3056.
  25. Estes, J. D., Wietgrefe, S., Schacker, T., Southern, P., Beilman, G., Reilly, C., Milush, J. M., Lifson, J. D., Sodora, D. L., Carlis, J. V. and Haase, A. T. (2007). Simian immunodeficiency virus-induced lymphatic tissue fibrosis is mediated by transforming growth factor beta 1-positive regulatory T cells and begins in early infection. J Infect Dis 195(4): 551-561.
  26. Milush, J. M., Kosub, D., Marthas, M., Schmidt, K., Scott, F., Wozniakowski, A., Brown, C., Westmoreland, S. and Sodora, D. L. (2004). Rapid dissemination of SIV following oral inoculation. AIDS 18(18): 2371-2380.
  27. Sodora, D. L., Milush, J. M., Ware, F., Wozniakowski, A., Montgomery, L., McClure, H. M., Lackner, A. A., Marthas, M., Hirsch, V., Johnson, R. P., Douek, D. C. and Koup, R. A. (2002). Decreased levels of recent thymic emigrants in peripheral blood of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques correlate with alterations within the thymus. J Virol 76(19): 9981-9990.
Protocols by Jeffrey M. Milush
  1. Ex vivo Human Natural Killer (NK) Cell Stimulation and Intracellular IFNγ and CD107a Cytokine Staining