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Christopher J. Law


Ph.D. in Biochemistry, University of Glasgow, 1999

Current position

Lecturer in Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, UK


  1. Paul, S., Alegre, K. O., Holdsworth, S. R., Rice, M., Brown, J. A., McVeigh, P., Kelly, S. M. and Law, C. J. (2014). A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects Escherichia coli from bile salt stress. Mol Microbiol 92(4): 872-884.
  2. Alegre, K. O., Paul, S. and Law, C. J. (2014). Multidrug transporter proteins of the major facilitator superfamily: not only for drug efflux. In: Nisnevitch, M. (ed). Prokaryotes: Physiology, Biochemistry and Cell Behavior. Nova Publishers.
  3. Holdsworth, S. R. and Law, C. J. (2013). Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol 13: 113.
  4. Holdsworth, S. R. and Law, C. J. (2013). The major facilitator superfamily transporter MdtM contributes to the intrinsic resistance of Escherichia coli to quaternary ammonium compounds. J Antimicrob Chemother 68(4): 831-839.
  5. Wilkinson, R., Law, C. J., Hoey, E. M., Fairweather, I., Brennan, G. P. and Trudgett, A. (2012). An amino acid substitution in Fasciola hepatica P-glycoprotein from triclabendazole-resistant and triclabendazole-susceptible populations. Mol Biochem Parasitol 186(1): 69-72.
  6. Holdsworth, S. R. and Law, C. J. (2012). Functional and biochemical characterisation of the Escherichia coli major facilitator superfamily multidrug transporter MdtM. Biochimie 94(6): 1334-1346.
  7. Law, C. J., Enkavi, G., Wang, D. N. and Tajkhorshid, E. (2009). Structural basis of substrate selectivity in the glycerol-3-phosphate: phosphate antiporter GlpT. Biophys J 97(5): 1346-1353.
  8. Zhou, Z., Zhen, J., Karpowich, N. K., Law, C. J., Reith, M. E. and Wang, D. N. (2009). Antidepressant specificity of serotonin transporter suggested by three LeuT-SSRI structures. Nat Struct Mol Biol 16(6): 652-657.
  9. Law, C. J., Maloney, P. C. and Wang, D. N. (2008). Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters. Annu Rev Microbiol 62: 289-305.
  10. Law, C. J., Almqvist, J., Bernstein, A., Goetz, R. M., Huang, Y., Soudant, C., Laaksonen, A., Hovmöller, S. and Wang, D.-N. (2008). Salt-bridge dynamics control substrate-induced conformational change in the membrane transporter GlpT. J Mol Biol 378(4): 828-839.
  11. Law, C. J., Yang, Q., Soudant, C., Maloney, P. C. and Wang, D. N. (2007). Kinetic evidence is consistent with the rocker-switch mechanism of membrane transport by GlpT. Biochemistry 46(43): 12190-12197.
  12. Law, C. J. and Cogdell, R. J. (2007). The light-harvesting system of purple anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. In: Renger, G. (ed). Primary Processes of Photosynthesis:Principles and Apparatus. RSC Publishing, Part 1, pp 205-259.
  13. Zhou, Z., Zhen, J., Karpowich, N. K., Goetz, R. M., Law, C. J., Reith, M. E. and Wang, D. N. (2007). LeuT-desipramine structure reveals how antidepressants block neurotransmitter reuptake. Science 317(5843): 1390-1393.
  14. Codgell, R. J., Southall, J., Gardiner, A. T., Law, C. J., Gall, A., Roszak, A. W. and Isaacs, N. W. (2006). How purple photosynthetic bacteria harvest solar energy. Comptes Rendus Chimie 9(2): 201-206.
  15. Law, C. J., Gardiner, A. T., Southall, J., Roszak, A. W., Howard, T. D. and Isaacs, N. W. (2005). How purple bacteria harvest light energy. In: Andrews, D. (ed). Energy Harvesting Materials. World Scientific Publishing Co, pp 65-95.
  16. Cogdell, R. J., Gardiner, A. T., Roszak, A. W., Law, C. J., Southall, J. and Isaacs, N. W. (2004). Rings, ellipses and horseshoes: how purple bacteria harvest solar energy. Photosynth Res 81(3): 207-214.
  17. Law, C. J., Roszak, A. W., Southall, J., Gardiner, A. T., Isaacs, N. W. and Cogdell, R. J. (2004). The structure and function of bacterial light-harvesting complexes. Mol Membr Biol 21(3): 183-191.
  18. Parkes-Loach, P. S., Majeed, A. P., Law, C. J. and Loach, P. A. (2004). Interactions stabilizing the structure of the core light-harvesting complex (LH1) of photosynthetic bacteria and its subunit (B820). Biochemistry 43(22): 7003-7016.
  19. Roszak, A. W., Howard, T. D., Southall, J., Gardiner, A. T., Law, C. J., Isaacs, N. W. and Cogdell, R. J. (2003). Crystal structure of the RC-LH1 core complex from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Science 302(5652): 1969-1972.
  20. Law, C. J., Penfold, C. N., Walker, D. C., Moore, G. R., James, R. and Kleanthous, C. (2003). OmpF enhances the ability of BtuB to protect susceptible Escherichia coli cells from colicin E9 cytotoxicity. FEBS Lett 545(2-3): 127-132.
  21. Law, C. J., Chen, J., Parkes-Loach, P. S. and Loach, P. A. (2003). Interaction of bacteriochlorophyll with the LH1 and PufX polypeptides of photosynthetic bacteria: use of chemically synthesized analogs and covalently attached fluorescent probes. Photosynth Res 75(3): 193-210.
  22. Parkes-Loach, P. S., Law, C. J., Recchia, P. A., Kehoe, J., Nehrlich, S., Chen, J. and Loach, P. A. (2001). Role of the core region of the PufX protein in inhibition of reconstitution of the core light-harvesting complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodobacter capsulatus. Biochemistry 40(19): 5593-5601.
  23. Trissl, H. W., Law, C. J. and Cogdell, R. J. (1999). Uphill energy transfer in LH2-containing purple bacteria at room temperature. Biochim Biophys Acta 1412(2): 149-172.
  24. Trissl, H. W., Law, C. J. and Cogdell, R. J. (1998). In: Garab, G. and Pusztai, J. (eds). Proceedings of the XIth International Congress on Photosynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Vol. 1: pp 65-68.
  25. Law, C. J. and Cogdell, R. J. (1998). The effect of chemical oxidation on the fluorescence of the LH1 (B880) complex from the purple bacterium Rhodobium marinum. FEBS Lett 432(1-2): 27-30.
  26. Cogdell, R. J., Fyfe, P., Fraser, N., Law, C., Howard, T., McLuskey, K., Prince, S., Freer, A. and Isaacs, N. (1998). Photosynthetic Light Harvesting. In: Caddick, M. X et al. (eds). Microbial responses to light and time. Cambridge University Press, pp 143-158.
  27. Law, C. J., Prince, S. M. and Cogdell, R. J. (1998). Crystallising the LH1-RC "core" complex of purple bacteria. Biochem Soc Trans 26(2): S160.
  28. Alden, R., Johnson, E., Nagarajan, V., Parson, W., Law, C. and Cogdell, R. (1997). Calculations of spectroscopic properties of the LH2 bacteriochlorophyll-protein antenna complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 101(23): 4667-4680.
  29. Law, C. J., Cogdell, R. J. and Trissl, H.-W. (1997). Antenna organisation in the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila studied by fluorescence induction. Photosynth Res 52(2): 157-165.
  30. Law, C. J. and Price, N. C. (1996). The accessibility of proteins in protein-SDS complexes. Biochem Soc Trans 24(2): 323S.
Protocols by Christopher J. Law
  1. Measurement of Proton-driven Antiport in Escherichia coli
  2. Measurement of the Electrogenicity of Bile Salt/H+ Antiport in Escherichia coli