Alex Hopke Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, USA
1 protocol

Robert T Wheeler
  • Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, USA
  • 1 Author merit


Ph.D, Stanford University, USA, 2000

Current position

Associate Professor, Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, USA


  1. Mallick, E. M., Bergeron, A. C., Jones, S. K., Jr., Newman, Z. R., Brothers, K. M., Creton, R., Wheeler, R. T. and Bennett, R. J. (2016). Phenotypic Plasticity Regulates Candida albicans Interactions and Virulence in the Vertebrate Host. Front Microbiol 7: 780.
  2. Hopke, A., Nicke, N., Hidu, E. E., Degani, G., Popolo, L. and Wheeler, R. T. (2016). Neutrophil Attack Triggers Extracellular Trap-Dependent Candida Cell Wall Remodeling and Altered Immune Recognition. PLoS Pathog 12(5): e1005644.
  3. Leach, M. D., Farrer, R. A., Tan, K., Miao, Z., Walker, L. A., Cuomo, C. A., Wheeler, R. T., Brown, A. J., Wong, K. H. and Cowen, L. E. (2016). Hsf1 and Hsp90 orchestrate temperature-dependent global transcriptional remodelling and chromatin architecture in Candida albicans. Nat Commun 7: 11704.
  4. Moyes, D. L., Wilson, D., Richardson, J. P., Mogavero, S., Tang, S. X., Wernecke, J., Hofs, S., Gratacap, R. L., Robbins, J., Runglall, M., Murciano, C., Blagojevic, M., Thavaraj, S., Forster, T. M., Hebecker, B., Kasper, L., Vizcay, G., Iancu, S. I., Kichik, N., Hader, A., Kurzai, O., Luo, T., Kruger, T., Kniemeyer, O., Cota, E., Bader, O., Wheeler, R. T., Gutsmann, T., Hube, B. and Naglik, J. R. (2016). Candidalysin is a fungal peptide toxin critical for mucosal infection. Nature 532(7597): 64-68.
  5. Voelz, K., Gratacap, R. L. and Wheeler, R. T. (2015). A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides. Dis Model Mech 8(11): 1375-1388.
  6. Gratacap, R. L., Bergeron, A. C. and Wheeler, R. T. (2014). Modeling mucosal candidiasis in larval zebrafish by swimbladder injection. J Vis Exp (93): e52182.
  7. Gilbert, A. S., Wheeler, R. T. and May, R. C. (2014). Fungal Pathogens: Survival and Replication within Macrophages. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 5(7):a019661.
  8. Davis, S. E., Hopke, A., Minkin, S. C., Jr., Montedonico, A. E., Wheeler, R. T. and Reynolds, T. B. (2014). Masking of beta(1-3)-glucan in the cell wall of Candida albicans from detection by innate immune cells depends on phosphatidylserine. Infect Immun 82(10): 4405-4413.
  9. Hogan, D. and Wheeler, R. T. (2014). The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection. Cell Microbiol 16(8): 1156-1167.
  10. Gratacap, R. L. and Wheeler, R. T. (2014). Utilization of zebrafish for intravital study of eukaryotic pathogen-host interactions. Dev Comp Immunol 46(1): 108-115.
  11. Lionakis, M. S., Swamydas, M., Fischer, B. G., Plantinga, T. S., Johnson, M. D., Jaeger, M., Green, N. M., Masedunskas, A., Weigert, R., Mikelis, C., Wan, W., Lee, C. C., Lim, J. K., Rivollier, A., Yang, J. C., Laird, G. M., Wheeler, R. T., Alexander, B. D., Perfect, J. R., Gao, J. L., Kullberg, B. J., Netea, M. G. and Murphy, P. M. (2013). CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival. J Clin Invest 123(12): 5035-5051.
  12. Brothers, K. M., Gratacap, R. L., Barker, S. E., Newman, Z. R., Norum, A. and Wheeler, R. T. (2013). NADPH oxidase-driven phagocyte recruitment controls Candida albicans filamentous growth and prevents mortality. PLoS Pathog 9(10): e1003634.
  13. Gratacap, R. L., Rawls, J. F. and Wheeler, R. T. (2013). Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-kappaB activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech 6(5): 1260-1270.
  14. Marakalala, M. J., Vautier, S., Potrykus, J., Walker, L. A., Shepardson, K. M., Hopke, A., Mora-Montes, H. M., Kerrigan, A., Netea, M. G., Murray, G. I., Maccallum, D. M., Wheeler, R., Munro, C. A., Gow, N. A., Cramer, R. A., Brown, A. J. and Brown, G. D. (2013). Differential adaptation of Candida albicans in vivo modulates immune recognition by dectin-1. PLoS Pathog 9(4): e1003315.
  15. Jimenez-Lopez, C., Collette, J. R., Brothers, K. M., Shepardson, K. M., Cramer, R. A., Wheeler, R. T. and Lorenz, M. C. (2013). Candida albicans induces arginine biosynthetic genes in response to host-derived reactive oxygen species. Eukaryot Cell 12(1): 91-100.
  16. Brothers, K. M. and Wheeler, R. T. (2012). Non-invasive imaging of disseminated candidiasis in zebrafish larvae. J Vis Exp (65).
  17. Tobin, D. M., May, R. C. and Wheeler, R. T. (2012). Zebrafish: a see-through host and a fluorescent toolbox to probe host-pathogen interaction. PLoS Pathog 8(1): e1002349.
  18. Brothers, K. M., Newman, Z. R. and Wheeler, R. T. (2011). Live imaging of disseminated candidiasis in zebrafish reveals role of phagocyte oxidase in limiting filamentous growth. Eukaryot Cell 10(7): 932-944.
  19. Moxley, J. F., Jewett, M. C., Antoniewicz, M. R., Villas-Boas, S. G., Alper, H., Wheeler, R. T., Tong, L., Hinnebusch, A. G., Ideker, T., Nielsen, J. and Stephanopoulos, G. (2009). Linking high-resolution metabolic flux phenotypes and transcriptional regulation in yeast modulated by the global regulator Gcn4p. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(16): 6477-6482.
  20. Wheeler, R. T., Kombe, D., Agarwala, S. D. and Fink, G. R. (2008). Dynamic, morphotype-specific Candida albicans beta-glucan exposure during infection and drug treatment. PLoS Pathog 4(12): e1000227.
  21. Johnnidis, J. B., Harris, M. H., Wheeler, R. T., Stehling-Sun, S., Lam, M. H., Kirak, O., Brummelkamp, T. R., Fleming, M. D. and Camargo, F. D. (2008). Regulation of progenitor cell proliferation and granulocyte function by microRNA-223. Nature 451(7182): 1125-1129.
  22. Wheeler, R. T. and Fink, G. R. (2006). A drug-sensitive genetic network masks fungi from the immune system. PLoS Pathog 2(4): e35.
  23. Wheeler, R. T., Kupiec, M., Magnelli, P., Abeijon, C. and Fink, G. R. (2003). A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with increased virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(5): 2766-2770.
  24. Wheeler, R. T. and Shapiro, L. (1999). Differential localization of two histidine kinases controlling bacterial cell differentiation. Mol Cell 4(5): 683-694.
  25. Wheeler, R. T., Gober, J. W. and Shapiro, L. (1998). Protein localization during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. Curr Opin Microbiol 1(6): 636-642.
  26. Wheeler, R. T. and Shapiro, L. (1997). Bacterial chromosome segregation: is there a mitotic apparatus? Cell 88(5): 577-579.
  27. Winzeler, E., Wheeler, R. and Shapiro, L. (1997). Transcriptional analysis of the Caulobacter 4.5 S RNA ffs gene and the physiological basis of an ffs mutant with a Ts phenotype. J Mol Biol 272(5): 665-676.
1 Protocol published
In vitro Detection of Neutrophil Traps and Post-attack Cell Wall Changes in Candida Hyphae
Authors:  Alex Hopke and Robert T. Wheeler, date: 04/05/2017, view: 1591, Q&A: 0
In this protocol we describe how to visualize neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and fungal cell wall changes in the context of the coculture of mouse neutrophils with fungal hyphae of Candida albicans. These protocols are easily ...