Robert Underly Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, USA
1 protocol

Zachary Taylor Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, USA
1 protocol

Andy Y. Shih
  • Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston
  • 2 Author merit


Ph.D. in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2006

Current position

Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC


Selected publications relevant to our protocol (5 of 23 total articles)

  1. Drew, P. J., Shih, A. Y., Driscoll, J. D., Knutsen, P. M., Blinder, P., Davalos, D., Akassoglou, K., Tsai, P. S. and Kleinfeld, D. (2010). Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull. Nat Methods 7(12): 981-984. This article describes a novel cranial window method (PoRTS window) that is optimal for long-term in vivo two-photon imaging because of reduced surgical inflammation. It is also the first report for microinfarct generation in mice by occlusion of single penetrating vessels. (Selected for journal cover image).
  2. Blinder, P., Shih, A. Y., Rafie, C. and Kleinfeld, D. (2010). Topological basis for the robust distribution of blood to rodent neocortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(28): 12670-12675.This article is the first demonstration of microinfarction caused by occlusion of a single cerebral penetrating arteriole in rats.
  3. Shih, A. Y., Driscoll, J. D., Drew, P. J., Nishimura, N., Schaffer, C. B. and Kleinfeld, D. (2012). Two-photon microscopy as a tool to study blood flow and neurovascular coupling in the rodent brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32(7): 1277-1309. This is a detailed review on surgical techniques, supplies and methods necessary for in vivo two-photon imaging and manipulation of blood flow in rodents. (Top Ten Most Downloaded in Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism).
  4. Shih, A. Y., Mateo, C., Drew, P. J., Tsai, P. S. and Kleinfeld, D. (2012). A polished and reinforced thinned-skull window for long-term imaging of the mouse brain. J Vis Exp(61). This is an article and video for instructions on PoRTS window construction.
  5. Shih, A. Y., Blinder, P., Tsai, P. S., Friedman, B., Stanley, G., Lyden, P. D. and Kleinfeld, D. (2013). The smallest stroke: occlusion of one penetrating vessel leads to infarction and a cognitive deficit. Nat Neurosci 16(1): 55-63. This recent article is a full characterization of microinfarcts in rats. The results demonstrate for the first time that microinfarcts are capable of generating a fun

Other peer-reviewed publications (10 of 23 total articles)

  1. Shih, A. Y., Johnson, D. A., Wong, G., Kraft, A. D., Jiang, L., Erb, H., Johnson, J. A. and Murphy, T. H. (2003). Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stress. J Neurosci 23(8): 3394-3406.
  2. Shih, A. Y., Imbeault, S., Barakauskas, V., Erb, H., Jiang, L., Li, P. and Murphy, T. H. (2005). Induction of the Nrf2-driven antioxidant response confers neuroprotection during mitochondrial stress in vivo. J Biol Chem 280(24): 22925-22936.
  3. Shih, A. Y., Li, P. and Murphy, T. H. (2005). A small-molecule-inducible Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response provides effective prophylaxis against cerebral ischemia in vivo. J Neurosci 25(44): 10321-10335.
  4. Shih, A. Y., Fernandes, H. B., Choi, F. Y., Kozoriz, M. G., Liu, Y., Li, P., Cowan, C. M. and Klegeris, A. (2006). Policing the police: astrocytes modulate microglial activation. J Neurosci 26(15): 3887-3888.
  5. Shih, A. Y., Erb, H., Sun, X., Toda, S., Kalivas, P. W. and Murphy, T. H. (2006). Cystine/glutamate exchange modulates glutathione supply for neuroprotection from oxidative stress and cell proliferation. J Neurosci 26(41): 10514-10523.
  6. Shih, A. Y., Erb, H. and Murphy, T. H. (2007). Dopamine activates Nrf2-regulated neuroprotective pathways in astrocytes and meningeal cells. J Neurochem 101(1): 109-119.
  7. Friedman, B., Schachtrup, C., Tsai, P. S., Shih, A. Y., Akassoglou, K., Kleinfeld, D. and Lyden, P. D. (2009). Acute vascular disruption and aquaporin 4 loss after stroke. Stroke 40(6): 2182-2190.
  8. Shih, A. Y., Friedman, B., Drew, P. J., Tsai, P. S., Lyden, P. D. and Kleinfeld, D. (2009). Active dilation of penetrating arterioles restores red blood cell flux to penumbral neocortex after focal stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29(4): 738-751.
  9. Valmianski, I., Shih, A. Y., Driscoll, J. D., Matthews, D. W., Freund, Y. and Kleinfeld, D. (2010). Automatic identification of fluorescently labeled brain cells for rapid functional imaging. J Neurophysiol 104(3): 1803-1811.
  10. Drew, P. J., Shih, A. Y. and Kleinfeld, D. (2011). Fluctuating and sensory-induced vasodynamics in rodent cortex extend arteriole capacity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(20): 8473-8478.
2 Protocols published
Photothrombotic Induction of Capillary Ischemia in the Mouse Cortex during in vivo Two-Photon Imaging
Authors:  Robert G. Underly and Andy Y. Shih, date: 07/05/2017, view: 561, Q&A: 0
Photothrombosis of blood vessels refers to the activation of a circulating photosensitive dye with a green light to induce clotting in vivo (Watson et al., 1985). Previous studies have described how a focused green laser could be ...
Targeted Occlusion of Individual Pial Vessels of Mouse Cortex
Authors:  Zachary J. Taylor and Andy Y. Shih, date: 09/05/2013, view: 3902, Q&A: 0
Targeted photothrombosis is a method to occlude individual arterioles and venules that lie on the surface of the cerebral cortex. It has been used to study collateral flow patterns within the pial vascular network following occlusion of single ...