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    Protocols in Current Issue
    A Novel Protocol to Quantitatively Measure the Endocytic Trafficking of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in Polarized Primary Neurons with Sub-cellular Resolution
    Authors:  Florent Ubelmann, Tatiana Burrinha and Cláudia Guimas Almeida, date: 12/05/2017, view: 86, Q&A: 0
    Alzheimer’s disease’s established primary trigger is β-amyloid (Aβ) (Mucke and Selkoe, 2012). The amyloid precursor protein (APP) endocytosis is required for Aβ generation at early endosomes (Rajendran and Annaert, 2012). APP retention at endosomes ...
    Formalin Murine Model of Pain
    Pain research is mostly based on experimental assays that use animal models, which may allow deciphering the physiopathology of this condition and to propel drug discovery. The formalin nociception test is considered one of the most predictive ...
    zPACT: Tissue Clearing and Immunohistochemistry on Juvenile Zebrafish Brain
    In studies of brain function, it is essential to understand the underlying neuro-architecture. Very young zebrafish larvae are widely used for neuroarchitecture studies, due to their size and natural transparency. However, this model system has ...
    Mandibular Explant Assay for Investigating Extrinsic Stimuli on Bone and Cartilage Development
    Authors:  Jamie Jiang, Jessica W. Bertol and Walid D. Fakhouri, date: 12/05/2017, view: 139, Q&A: 0
    A major issue in developmental biology is to determine how embryonic tissues respond to molecular signals in a timely manner and given the position-restricted instructions during morphogenesis, of which Meckel’s cartilage is a classical example. The ...
    Proboscis Extension Reflex in Apis mellifera [Honeybee] with Only One Antenna
    Authors:  Yu Guo, Zilong Wang, Zhijiang Zeng, Shaowu Zhang and Runsheng Chen, date: 12/05/2017, view: 81, Q&A: 0
    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is a common classical conditioned reflex which is widely used in the neurology and ethology. In honeybees, PER experiments can train bees to associate an odor with a reward or punishment. Here we present a ...
    Live Imaging of Axonal Transport in the Motor Neurons of Drosophila Larvae
    Authors:  Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Nobutaka Hattori and Yuzuru Imai, date: 12/05/2017, view: 85, Q&A: 0
    Axonal transport, which is composed of microtubules, motor proteins and a variety of types of cargo, is a prominent feature of neurons. Monitoring these molecular dynamics is important to understand the biological processes of neurons as well as ...
    A Novel Protocol to Quantitatively Measure the Endocytic Trafficking of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in Polarized Primary Neurons with Sub-cellular Resolution
    Authors:  Florent Ubelmann, Tatiana Burrinha and Cláudia Guimas Almeida, date: 12/05/2017, view: 86, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Alzheimer’s disease’s established primary trigger is β-amyloid (Aβ) (Mucke and Selkoe, 2012). The amyloid precursor protein (APP) endocytosis is required for Aβ generation at early endosomes (Rajendran and Annaert, 2012). APP retention at endosomes depends on its sorting for degradation in lysosomes (Haass et al., 1992; Morel et al. ...
    Formalin Murine Model of Pain
    [Abstract] Pain research is mostly based on experimental assays that use animal models, which may allow deciphering the physiopathology of this condition and to propel drug discovery. The formalin nociception test is considered one of the most predictive approaches to study acute pain in rodents. This test permits monitoring pain-related responses (i.e. ...
    zPACT: Tissue Clearing and Immunohistochemistry on Juvenile Zebrafish Brain
    [Abstract] In studies of brain function, it is essential to understand the underlying neuro-architecture. Very young zebrafish larvae are widely used for neuroarchitecture studies, due to their size and natural transparency. However, this model system has several limitations, due to the immaturity, high rates of development and limited behavioral repertoire ...
    Mandibular Explant Assay for Investigating Extrinsic Stimuli on Bone and Cartilage Development
    Authors:  Jamie Jiang, Jessica W. Bertol and Walid D. Fakhouri, date: 12/05/2017, view: 139, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A major issue in developmental biology is to determine how embryonic tissues respond to molecular signals in a timely manner and given the position-restricted instructions during morphogenesis, of which Meckel’s cartilage is a classical example. The ex-vivo explant model is a practical and convenient system that allows investigation of ...
    Proboscis Extension Reflex in Apis mellifera [Honeybee] with Only One Antenna
    Authors:  Yu Guo, Zilong Wang, Zhijiang Zeng, Shaowu Zhang and Runsheng Chen, date: 12/05/2017, view: 81, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is a common classical conditioned reflex which is widely used in the neurology and ethology. In honeybees, PER experiments can train bees to associate an odor with a reward or punishment. Here we present a variation of the PER experiment in Apis mellifera that trains honeybees using only one antenna. ...
    Live Imaging of Axonal Transport in the Motor Neurons of Drosophila Larvae
    Authors:  Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Nobutaka Hattori and Yuzuru Imai, date: 12/05/2017, view: 85, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Axonal transport, which is composed of microtubules, motor proteins and a variety of types of cargo, is a prominent feature of neurons. Monitoring these molecular dynamics is important to understand the biological processes of neurons as well as neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with axonal dysfunction. Here, we describe a protocol ...
    Obtaining Multi-electrode Array Recordings from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Neurons
    Authors:  Xiaohong Xu, Carola I. Radulescu, Kagistia Hana Utami and Mahmoud A. Pouladi , date: 11/20/2017, view: 365, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Neuronal electrical properties are often aberrant in neurological disorders. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons represent a useful platform for neurological disease modeling, drug discovery and toxicity screening in vitro. Multi-electrode array (MEA) systems offer a non-invasive and label-free platform to record ...
    A Streamlined Method for the Preparation of Gelatin Embedded Brains and Simplified Organization of Sections for Serial Reconstructions
    Authors:  Andrew W. Liu, Sho Aoki and Jeffery R. Wickens, date: 11/20/2017, view: 360, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gelatin embedding of whole brains for sectioning is a critical procedure used in neuroscience to ensure all morphological and spatial details are preserved intact. Here, we describe an inexpensive, reproducible and efficient means to embed post-fixed brains ready for sectioning in gelatin within a week’s time. The sections obtained are ...
    Combination of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunofluorescence Imaging for Detection of Cytokine Expression in Microglia/Macrophage Cells
    Authors:  Maria Fe Lanfranco, David J. Loane, Italo Mocchetti, Mark P. Burns and Sonia Villapol, date: 11/20/2017, view: 326, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microglia and macrophage cells are the primary producers of cytokines in response to neuroinflammatory processes. But these cytokines are also produced by other glial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It is essential to identify the cells that produce these cytokines to target their different levels of activation. We used dual RNAscope® ...
    Organotypic Brain Cultures: A Framework for Studying CNS Infection by Neurotropic Viruses and Screening Antiviral Drugs
    [Abstract] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 50% of emerging viruses endowed with pathogenicity in humans can infect the Central Nervous System (CNS) with induction of encephalitis and other neurologic diseases (Taylor et al., 2001; Olival and Daszak, 2005). While neurological diseases are progressively documented, the ...