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    Using Silicon Polymer Impression Technique and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Measure Stomatal Aperture, Morphology, and Density
    Authors:  Hui-Chen Wu, Ya-Chen Huang, Chia-Hung Liu and Tsung-Luo Jinn, date: 08/20/2017, view: 763, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The number of stomata on leaves can be affected by intrinsic development programming and various environmental factors, in addition the control of stomatal apertures is extremely important for the plant stress response. In response to elevated temperatures, transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures, allowing the leaf to cool through ...
    Isolation of Cytosol, Microsome, Free Polysomes (FPs) and Membrane-bound Polysomes (MBPs) from Arabidopsis Seedlings
    Authors:  Yonghui Zhao and Shengben Li, date: 08/05/2017, view: 910, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant endomembrane system plays vital roles for synthesis, modification and secretion of proteins and lipids. From the classic view, only mRNAs encoding secreted proteins could be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for translation via a co-translational translocation manner, however, recently this model has been challenged by ...
    Surface Inoculation and Quantification of Pseudomonas syringae Population in the Arabidopsis Leaf Apoplast
    Authors:  Cristián Jacob, Shweta Panchal and Maeli Melotto, date: 03/05/2017, view: 1728, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacterial pathogens must enter the plant tissue in order to cause a successful infection. Foliar bacterial pathogens that are not able to directly penetrate the plant epidermis rely on wounds or natural openings to internalize leaves. This protocol describes a procedure to estimate the population size of Pseudomonas syringae in the leaf ...
    Cation (Ca2+ and Mn2+) Partitioning Assays with Intact Arabidopsis Chloroplasts
    Authors:  Anna Harms, Iris Steinberger and Anja Schneider, date: 01/05/2017, view: 1888, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Determination of the relative distribution of Ca2+ and Mn2+ is an important tool for analyzing mutants showing altered levels of calcium and/or manganese transporters in the chloroplast envelope or thylakoid membrane. The method described in this protocol allows quantitative analyses of the relative distribution of calcium ...
    Plant Tissue Trypan Blue Staining During Phytopathogen Infection
    [Abstract] In this protocol plant tissue is stained with trypan blue dye allowing the researcher to visualize cell death. Specifically this method avoids the use of the carcinogen compound chloral hydrate, making this classical method of staining safer and faster than ever. The protocol is applied specifically to detect cell death on Arabidopsis ...
    Measurement of ATP Hydrolytic Activity of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase from Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves
    Authors:  Masaki Okumura and Toshinori Kinoshita, date: 12/05/2016, view: 1935, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which is a P-type ATPase, couples ATP hydrolysis to H+ extrusion and thereby generates an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. The proton gradient is necessary for secondary transport, cell elongation, and membrane potential maintenance. Here we describe a protocol for ...
    Establishment of a Fusarium graminearum Infection Model in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves and Floral Tissues
    Authors:  Vamsi J Nalam, Sujon Sarowar and Jyoti Shah, date: 07/20/2016, view: 3001, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which targets the floral tissues and thereby adversely impacts grain yield and quality. Mycotoxins produced by F. graminearum further limit the ...
    Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements in Arabidopsis Wild-type and Photosystem II Mutant Leaves
    Authors:  Iris Steinberger, Felix Egidi and Anja Schneider, date: 07/20/2015, view: 2912, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement is a widely used technique to determine photosynthetic performance. Light energy absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule can be dissipated by driving photochemical energy conversion, as heat in non-photochemical quenching processes, or it is re-emitted as fluorescence. The loss of light energy as chlorophyll ...
    A Protocol to Measure the Cytoplasmic Calcium in Arabidopsis Guard Cells
    Authors:  Li Li, Feng Lin, Yana Qu and Qun Zhang, date: 05/05/2015, view: 3313, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) acts as a stimulus-induced second messenger in multiple signal transduction cascades (Allen et al., 1999). In plant cells, a dramatic and readily assayed response to stimulus is the change of stomatal aperture. Changes in [Ca2+]cyt of stomatal guard cells were ...
    Analyses of Plant Leaf Cell Size, Density and Number, as Well as Trichome Number Using Cell Counter Plugin
    Authors:  Yan Cheng, Ling Cao, Sheng Wang, Yongpeng Li, Hong Wang and Yongming Zhou, date: 07/05/2014, view: 9155, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] An Arabidopsis leaf blade is composed of many layers that are sandwiched between two layers of tough skin cells (called the epidermis). Four layers (adaxial epidermis, palisade layer, spongy mesophyll and abaxial epidermis) contain specialized cells. Here we describe a quick and simple method for analyzing the size, number and density of ...