Protocols in Current Issue
    Instillation of Particulate Suspensions to the Lungs
    Authors:  Etsushi Kuroda, Yasuo Morimoto and Ken J Ishii, date: 11/20/2017, view: 69, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Inhaled fine particulates are thought to cause chronic pulmonary inflammation through the deposition of particulates into the lungs. To investigate the effect of fine particulates on the lungs, instillation of suspension of particulates into the lungs is required. This protocol describes direct injection of suspensions of fine particulates into ...
    Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tissue and Trypanosoma cruzi Killing Assay
    Authors:  Hisako Kayama, Shoko Kitada and Kiyoshi Takeda, date: 11/20/2017, view: 41, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease. The methods provided here allow for the quantification of T. cruzi in the liver, heart, and blood of intraperitoneally-infected mice and analysis of the killing activity of the cells infected with T. cruzi in vitro.
    A Streamlined Method for the Preparation of Gelatin Embedded Brains and Simplified Organization of Sections for Serial Reconstructions
    Authors:  Andrew W. Liu, Sho Aoki and Jeffery R. Wickens, date: 11/20/2017, view: 139, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gelatin embedding of whole brains for sectioning is a critical procedure used in neuroscience to ensure all morphological and spatial details are preserved intact. Here, we describe an inexpensive, reproducible and efficient means to embed post-fixed brains ready for sectioning in gelatin within a week’s time. The sections obtained are ...
    Combination of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunofluorescence Imaging for Detection of Cytokine Expression in Microglia/Macrophage Cells
    Authors:  Maria Fe Lanfranco, David J. Loane, Italo Mocchetti, Mark P. Burns and Sonia Villapol, date: 11/20/2017, view: 101, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microglia and macrophage cells are the primary producers of cytokines in response to neuroinflammatory processes. But these cytokines are also produced by other glial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It is essential to identify the cells that produce these cytokines to target their different levels of activation. We used dual RNAscope® ...
    Organotypic Brain Cultures: A Framework for Studying CNS Infection by Neurotropic Viruses and Screening Antiviral Drugs
    [Abstract] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 50% of emerging viruses endowed with pathogenicity in humans can infect the Central Nervous System (CNS) with induction of encephalitis and other neurologic diseases (Taylor et al., 2001; Olival and Daszak, 2005). While neurological diseases are progressively documented, the ...
    Assessment of Aversion of Acute Pain Stimulus through Conditioned Place Aversion
    [Abstract] Pain is a complex experience. The aversive component of pain has been assessed through conditioned place aversion in rodents. However, this behavioral test does not allow the evaluation of the aversion of an acute pain stimulus. In Zhang et al. (2017), we provide an updated version of a Conditioned Place Aversion paradigm to address this ...
    Histochemical Staining of Collagen and Identification of Its Subtypes by Picrosirius Red Dye in Mouse Reproductive Tissues
    [Abstract] Collagen is one of the foremost components of tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). It provides strength, elasticity and architecture to the tissue enabling it to bear the wear and tear from external factors like physical stress as well as internal stress factors like inflammation or other pathological conditions. During normal pregnancy or pregnancy ...
    Isolation, Culture and Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Precursor Cells
    Authors:  Stefanie N. Bernas, Odette Leiter, Tara L. Walker and Gerd Kempermann, date: 11/05/2017, view: 437, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] There are two neurogenic niches in the adult mammalian brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Cells from these areas can be isolated and maintained in vitro, using two different culture systems to assess their potential regarding proliferation and differentiation ...
    Proximal Ligation Assay (PLA) on Lung Tissue and Cultured Macrophages to Demonstrate Protein-protein Interaction
    Authors:  Roberto Mendez and Santanu Banerjee, date: 11/05/2017, view: 239, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol, we describe proximal ligation assay (PLA), an antibody-based detection method for protein-protein interaction. This method relies on specific binding of individual primary antibodies to the two putative interacting proteins. The primary antibodies need to have different hosts. The secondary antibodies against the two hosts have ...
    Sensitive Estimation of Flavor Preferences in STFP Using Cumulative Time Profiles
    Authors:  Aditya Singh and J. Balaji, date: 11/05/2017, view: 254, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Social transmission of food preference (STFP) is observed among rodents between a demonstrator and a naïve hungry observer. During social interaction, hungry observer receives information about safety of the food consumed by the demonstrator. This task has been implemented to develop a single trial non-aversive learning task in order to test ...