Protocols in Current Issue
    FM1-43 Photoconversion and Electron Microscopy Analysis at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction
    Authors:  Nadezhda S. Sabeva and Maria Bykhovskaia, date: 09/05/2017, view: 272, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We developed a protocol for photoconversion of endocytic marker FM1-43 followed by electron microscopy analysis of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This protocol allows detection of stained synaptic vesicle even when release rates are very low, such as during the spontaneous release mode. The preparations are ...
    Microinjection of Virus into Lumbar Enlargement of Spinal Dorsal Horn in Mice
    Authors:  Zhi-Jun Zhang, Peng-Bo Jing and Yong-Jing Gao, date: 11/20/2016, view: 2003, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In order to explore the role of a specific gene/protein in the specific segment of spinal cord, the technique of intraspinal injection is particularly used to deliver viral vectors targeting the specific gene/protein. These viral vectors can knockdown or overexpress the specific gene/protein in specific cells (glial cells or neurons). In this ...
    In utero Electroporation of the Embryonic Mouse Retina
    Authors:  Francisco Nieto-Lopez and Luisa Sanchez-Arrones, date: 10/05/2014, view: 5295, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol is useful to manipulate gene expression in the embryonic retina and compare the result with the contralateral non electroporated retina. In addition, the electroporation of a membrane or cytoplasmic tagged GFP allows to determine the effects of gene manipulation on the outgrowth of retinal ganglion cell axons (Garcia-Frigola et al. ...
    Open-book Preparations from Chick Embryos and DiI Labeling of Commissural Axons
    Authors:  Nicole H. Wilson and Esther T. Stoeckli, date: 07/05/2014, view: 4325, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Successful neural circuit formation relies on the accurate navigation of axons towards their targets during development. Axons are guided by a combination of short-range and long-range, attractive and repulsive cues. The commissural axons of the developing spinal cord have provided an informative in vivo model for the identification of ...
    Neural Stem Cell Differentiation and Prion Infection
    Authors:  Yoshifumi Iwamaru, Takato Takenouchi and Hiroshi Kitani, date: 03/20/2014, view: 4598, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Prion diseases are transmissible, fatal, neurodegenerative diseases in human and animals. The molecular basis of neurodegeneration in prion diseases is largely unclear. Developing a cellular model capable of monitoring prion-induced cytotoxicity would be a promising approach for better understanding the prion pathogenesis. One candidate cellular ...
    Isolation and Culture of Neurospheres for the Study of Pathogenesis of Prion Disease
    Authors:  Yoshifumi Iwamaru, Takato Takenouchi and Hiroshi Kitani, date: 03/20/2014, view: 8205, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Neurosphere contains neural stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes (Gage, 2000). Cell culture model using differentiated neurosphere cultures are suggested to be a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of prion disease at the cellular level (Iwamaru et ...
    Neuron Culture from Mouse Superior Cervical Ganglion
    Authors:  Marisa Jackson and Warren Tourtellotte, date: 01/20/2014, view: 5688, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The rodent superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is a useful and readily accessible source of neurons for studying the mechanisms of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) development and growth in vitro. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) of early postnatal animals undergoes a great deal of remodeling and development; thus, neurons taken from ...
    Implantation of Dkk-1-soaked Beads into the Neural Tube of Chicken Embryos
    Authors:  Almudena Martinez-Ferre, Maria Navarro-Garberí, Carlos Bueno and Salvador Martinez, date: 11/05/2013, view: 5011, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chick embryos are known to be a powerful system to test gene function due to the “in vivo” accessibility, short time for results retrieval and the possibility to perform a large number of experiments. Synthetic micro-beads soaked in morphogenetic signals or receptor inhibitors can be implanted in selective embryo regions at precise ...
    Primary Culture of SVZ-derived Progenitors Grown as Neurospheres
    Authors:  Julien Vernerey, Karine Magalon and Pascale Durbec, date: 08/20/2013, view: 4251, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] SVZ-derived progenitors grown as neurospheres is a well-known model to study neural stem cell and progenitor functions such as proliferation, differentiation/self-renewal, and migration (Durbec and Rougon, 2001). This protocol is for preparing a culture of SVZ-derived progenitors from 8 early postnatal mouse brains (P0 to P3). One week after cell ...
    Isolation of Growth Cones from Mouse Brain
    Authors:  Iryna Leshchyns’ka and Vladimir Sytnyk, date: 08/05/2013, view: 4098, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Growth cones are motile structures at the tips of growing neurites, which play an essential role in regulation of growth and navigation of growing axons and dendrites of neurons in the developing nervous system. This protocol describes isolation of growth cones from the brain tissue from young mice. Growth cones isolated using this protocol have ...