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    Extraction and Molybdenum Blue-based Quantification of Total Phosphate and Polyphosphate in Parachlorella
    Authors:  Shuhei Ota and Shigeyuki Kawano, date: 09/05/2017, view: 382, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Inorganic phosphorus is a non-renewable resource and an essential element for life on Earth. Organisms such as algae, protists, and animals can store phosphate (Pi) through uptake of Pi as polyphosphate (poly-P), which is a linear polymer of orthophosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. Here, we describe procedures for ...
    Bacterial Intracellular Sodium Ion Measurement using CoroNa Green
    Authors:  Yusuke V. Morimoto, Keiichi Namba and Tohru Minamino, date: 01/05/2017, view: 1764, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus consists of a cytoplasmic ATPase complex and a transmembrane export gate complex, which are powered by ATP and proton motive force (PMF) across the cytoplasmic membrane, respectively, and transports flagellar component proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure ...
    Cation (Ca2+ and Mn2+) Partitioning Assays with Intact Arabidopsis Chloroplasts
    Authors:  Anna Harms, Iris Steinberger and Anja Schneider, date: 01/05/2017, view: 1668, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Determination of the relative distribution of Ca2+ and Mn2+ is an important tool for analyzing mutants showing altered levels of calcium and/or manganese transporters in the chloroplast envelope or thylakoid membrane. The method described in this protocol allows quantitative analyses of the relative distribution of calcium ...
    Putrescine Biosynthesis Inhibition in Tomato by DFMA and DFMO Treatment
    [Abstract] This protocol can be used to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines, specifically putrescine, in tomato plants grown with NH4+ as a solely N source. In general, polyamines are positively charged small metabolites implicated in physiological processes, including organogenesis, embryogenesis, floral initiation and development, ...
    Measurement of Cellular Copper in Rhodobacter capsulatus by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    Authors:  Petru-Iulian Trasnea, Dorian Marckmann, Marcel Utz and Hans-Georg Koch, date: 10/05/2016, view: 1745, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Copper is an essential micronutrient and functions as a cofactor in many enzymes such as heme-Cu oxygen reductases, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases, multi-copper oxidases and tyrosinases. However, due to its chemical reactivity, free copper is highly toxic (Rae et al., 1999) and all organisms use sophisticated machineries for controlling ...
    59Fe Uptake Assays in Paracoccidioides Species
    [Abstract] Iron is an essential micronutrient required for virtually all organisms. This fact is related to the ability of the transition metal to exist in two oxidation states, the reduced ferrous (Fe2+) and the oxidized ferric (Fe3+). Given the relative availability of aqueous iron (the element which constitutes ~5% of the earth’s ...
    Measurement of Transferrin- and Non-transferrin-bound Iron Uptake by Mouse Tissues
    Authors:  Supak Jenkitkasemwong, Chia-Yu Wang and Mitchell D. Knutson, date: 09/05/2016, view: 1749, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Iron in blood plasma is bound to its transport protein transferrin, which delivers iron to most tissues. In iron overload and certain pathological conditions, the carrying capacity of transferrin can become exceeded, giving rise to non-transferrin-bound iron, which is taken up preferentially by the liver, kidney, pancreas, and heart. The ...
    Extraction and Quantification of Polyphosphate in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Authors:  David Canadell, Samuel Bru, Josep Clotet and Joaquín Ariño, date: 07/20/2016, view: 2267, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and made from three to hundreds of orthophosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. The biological role of this molecule goes beyond serving as Pi store or energy source to replace ATP. For instance, in yeast polyP levels have been ...
    Cytohistochemical Determination of Calcium Deposition in Plant Cells
    Authors:  Wan-Jun Zhang and Tao Wang, date: 01/20/2016, view: 1892, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Calcium plays important roles in maintaining plant cellular structure and also acts as a key secondary messenger in intercellular signaling. Thirty years ago, methods of detecting calcium in sub-cellular level had been established (Stockwell and Hanchey, 1982; Borgers et al., 1982) and reviewed extensively (Wick and Heplerm, 1982). We had ...
    Histochemical Staining of Silica Body in Rice Leaf Blades
    [Abstract] Silicon (Si) is a biologically important element for plants in the order Poales (Yamamoto et al., 2011; Kido et al., 2015). In rice, Si is mainly deposited in the motor cells and the cell walls of the leaf epidermis. However, the molecular basis of this overall process has not been elucidated. Thus, we propose a protocol for the ...