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    [Bio101] Leaf Clearing Protocol to Observe Stomata and Other Cells on Leaf Surface
    Author:  Nidhi Sharma, date: 09/05/2017, view: 157, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol, leaves are cleared and fixed in an ethanol and acetic acid solution, and mounted in Hoyer’s solution. The cleared leaves are imaged under differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. This protocol is beneficial for studying stomata, hair cells, and other epidermal cells in plants.
    Using Silicon Polymer Impression Technique and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Measure Stomatal Aperture, Morphology, and Density
    Authors:  Hui-Chen Wu, Ya-Chen Huang, Chia-Hung Liu and Tsung-Luo Jinn, date: 08/20/2017, view: 409, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The number of stomata on leaves can be affected by intrinsic development programming and various environmental factors, in addition the control of stomatal apertures is extremely important for the plant stress response. In response to elevated temperatures, transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures, allowing the leaf to cool through ...
    Resin-embedded Thin-section Immunohistochemistry Coupled with Triple Cellular Counterstaining
    Authors:  William M Palmer, John W Patrick and Yong-Ling Ruan, date: 04/05/2017, view: 684, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol was developed to study protein localisation within the vascular bundles of developing tomato fruit however, it can be applied to any resin embedded plant tissue. The vascular bundle is comprised of many different cells that all have unique properties. The mature sieve elements are enucleated and contain sieve plates that comprise of ...
    T Cell Transfer Model of Colitis
    Authors:  Wen Pan, Shu Zhu, Dai Dai, Yuanjia Tang, Yihong Yao and Nan Shen, date: 07/05/2016, view: 2286, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is mainly caused by disordered immune regulation and dysregulated intestinal microbiota. Here we present the T cell transfer model which has extensively used in many studies to identify the regulatory T cell function in gut inflammation. Naïve T cells only ...
    Morphological Quantification of Nuclei and Mitochondria in Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy Images
    Authors:  Haiyan Lu, Nobuhiko Ohno and Richard M. Ransohoff, date: 09/20/2015, view: 2194, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM or 3D-EM) is a powerful tool to study biological structure in ultrastructural level. Quantification of cellular ultrastructure is useful to providing biological information. This technique requires not only high quality of tissue fixation and ideal sample embedding to preserve structures, ...
    Transverse Sectioning of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves Using Resin Embedding
    Authors:  Shweta Kalve, Kumud Saini, Kris Vissenberg, Tom Beeckman and Gerrit T. S. Beemster, date: 09/20/2015, view: 3880, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The leaf is the major functional part of the shoot performing the bulk of photosynthetic activity. Its development is relatively plastic allowing the plant to adapt to environmental changes by modifying leaf size and anatomy. Moreover, a leaf is made up of various distinct cell layers, each having specialized functions. To understand functional ...
    A Simple Protocol for the Immunolabelling of Arabidopsis Pollen Tube Membranes and Cell Wall Polymers
    [Abstract] The pollen tube, a fast tip-growing cell, is an excellent model to study membrane and cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we describe a simple protocol using an easy to use device to perform immunofluorescence labelling of pollen tube membrane and cell wall. The use of the NucleoSpin column to perform all the steps of the immunolabelling procedure ...
    Plastic Embedding of Arabidopsis Stem Sections
    [Abstract] The inflorescence stem of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) is an excellent model system to investigate plant vascular tissue patterning and development. Plant vasculature is a complex conducting tissue arranged in strands called vascular bundles, formed by xylem (tissue that carries water) and phloem (tissue that ...
    Immunofluorescence Labeling of Pollen Tubes
    Authors:  Hao Wang and Liwen Jiang, date: 05/20/2014, view: 3537, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Pollen tube is regarded as an excellent single-cell model system in plant cell studies. This protocol describes the use of a rapid and reliable immunofluorescence labeling method for studying in situ localization of proteins in pollen tubes. The whole experiment contains two major steps: pollen tube in vitro germination, and ...
    In vivo Extravasation Assay
    Authors:  Elisa Penna and Daniela Taverna, date: 02/20/2014, view: 4646, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Tumor metastases develop when disseminated intravascular cancer cells acquire the ability to arrest by adhering to the capillary walls of distant organs, actively extravasate into their parenchyma, proliferate and establish secondary colonies. The extravasation assay described here is an in vivo technique aimed to analyze the ability of ...