Protocols in Current Issue
    Capturing Z-stacked Confocal Images of Living Bacteria Entering Hydathode Pores of Cauliflower
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 31, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The present protocol to visualize living bacteria at the pore level of cauliflower hydathodes is simple and trained users in confocal microscopy can execute it successfully. It can be easily adapted to capture images with other plant-microorganism interactions at the leaf surface and should be useful to obtain important information on pore and ...
    Multicolor Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy to Generate High-resolution Images of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Particles and Infected Cells
    [Abstract] Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells induces filopodia, cellular protrusions consisting of F-actin, that extend to neighboring uninfected cells (Mehedi et al., 2016). High-resolution imaging via stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy revealed filamentous RSV particles along these ...
    Rearing of Culex spp. and Aedes spp. Mosquitoes
    [Abstract] Mosquito-transmitted pathogens cause major public health problems and contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses; Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses, among others. Experiments ...
    Preparation of Mosquito Salivary Gland Extract and Intradermal Inoculation of Mice
    Authors:  Michael A. Schmid, Elizabeth Kauffman, Anne Payne, Eva Harris and Laura D. Kramer, date: 07/20/2017, view: 1110, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Mosquito-transmitted pathogens are among the leading causes of severe disease and death in humans. Components within the saliva of mosquito vectors facilitate blood feeding, modulate host responses, and allow efficient transmission of pathogens, such as Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses, as well ...
    A Reliable Assay to Evaluate the Virulence of Aspergillus nidulans Using the Alternative Animal Model Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera)
    [Abstract] The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has emerged as an effective heterologous host to study fungal pathogenesis and the efficacy of promising antifungal drugs (Mylonakis et al., 2005; Li et al., 2013). Here, a methodology describing the Aspergillus nidulans infection in G. mellonella larvae, along ...
    Inoculation of Rice with Different Pathogens: Sheath Blight (Rhizoctonia solani), Damping off Disease (Pythium graminicola) and Barley Powdery Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei)
    Authors:  Rhoda Delventhal, Marco Loehrer, Denise Weidenbach and Ulrich Schaffrath, date: 12/20/2016, view: 2101, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] To prevent yield losses in plant cultivation due to plant pathogens, it is an important task to find new disease resistance mechanisms. Recently, Weidenbach et al. (2016) reported about the capacity of the rice gene OsJAC1 to enhance resistance in rice and barley against a broad spectrum of different pathogens. Here, we describe ...
    Bacterial Growth Inhibition Assay for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Escherichia coli K12 Grown together with Plant Leaf Extracts
    Authors:  Marco Loehrer, Rhoda Delventhal, Denise Weidenbach and Ulrich Schaffrath, date: 12/20/2016, view: 1623, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We performed a growth inhibition assay to test antibacterial compounds in leaf extracts from transgenic rice plants. The assay is based on over-night co-incubation of a defined concentration of colony forming units (cfu) of the respective bacteria together with aqueous extracts of ground leaf tissue.
    Assessment of Wheat Resistance to Fusarium graminearum by Automated Image Analysis of Detached Leaves Assay
    Authors:  Alexandre Perochon and Fiona M. Doohan, date: 12/20/2016, view: 2151, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium pathogens is a globally important cereal disease. To study Fusarium pathogenicity and host disease resistance, robust methods for disease assessment and quantification are needed. Here we describe the procedure of a detached leaves assay emphasizing the image analysis. The ...
    An Assay to Study Botrytis cinerea-infected Grapevine Leaves Primed with Pseudomonas fluorescens
    [Abstract] Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is susceptible to an array of diseases among them the grey mold caused by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea that decreases grape productivity and quality. To ensure a satisfactory yield and harvest quality numerous chemical fungicides are required, but they have serious drawbacks. One ...
    Ustilago maydis Virulence Assays in Maize
    Authors:  Amey Redkar and Gunther Doehlemann, date: 03/20/2016, view: 2565, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) infects all aerial parts of its host plant maize (Zea mays L.). Infection symptoms are seen in the form of prominent tumors on all aerial parts of maize, after the establishment of a biotrophic interaction with the host usually around 5-6 days post infection ...