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    Quantification of Membrane Damage/Cell Death Using Evan’s Blue Staining Technique
    [Abstract] Membrane damage is a hallmark of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. The membrane determines the ability of a cell to sustain altered environmental conditions and hence can be used as a biomarker to assess stress-induced cell damage or death. We present an easy, quick, cost-effective, staining and spectrophotometric method to assess membrane ...
    Use of SCRI Renaissance 2200 (SR2200) as a Versatile Dye for Imaging of Developing Embryos, Whole Ovules, Pollen Tubes and Roots
    Authors:  Thomas J. Musielak, Patrick Bürgel, Martina Kolb and Martin Bayer, date: 09/20/2016, view: 2404, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with fluorescent proteins is a powerful tool for the study of sexual reproduction and other developmental processes in plants. In order to understand the origin and localization of fluorescent signals in a complex tissue, staining of cell outlines is often mandatory. Cell wall staining with SCRI ...
    Quantification of Callose Deposition in Plant Leaves
    [Abstract] Callose is an amorphous homopolymer, composed of β-1, 3-glucan, which is widespread in higher plants. Callose is involved in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. It is synthetized in plants at the cell plate during cytokinesis, in several stages during pollen development and is deposited at plasmodesmata to regulate the cell-to-cell ...
    Histochemical Staining of Silica Body in Rice Leaf Blades
    [Abstract] Silicon (Si) is a biologically important element for plants in the order Poales (Yamamoto et al., 2011; Kido et al., 2015). In rice, Si is mainly deposited in the motor cells and the cell walls of the leaf epidermis. However, the molecular basis of this overall process has not been elucidated. Thus, we propose a protocol for the ...
    Detection of Poly (A) RNA in Mesophyll Cells of Nicotiana benthamiana Using in situ Hybridization
    Authors:  Yuri Mizuno and Daigo Takemoto, date: 09/05/2015, view: 2029, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Export of transcribed mRNAs from nucleoplasm to cytosol is an essential process for the translation of genes into proteins. This process is tightly regulated by nuclear pores, composed of about 30 nucleoporin proteins (Nups). Whether or not the mRNAs are able to be appropriately exported to cytoplasm is of an importance for understanding the role ...
    A Simple Protocol for the Immunolabelling of Arabidopsis Pollen Tube Membranes and Cell Wall Polymers
    [Abstract] The pollen tube, a fast tip-growing cell, is an excellent model to study membrane and cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we describe a simple protocol using an easy to use device to perform immunofluorescence labelling of pollen tube membrane and cell wall. The use of the NucleoSpin column to perform all the steps of the immunolabelling procedure ...
    Staining of Callose Depositions in Root and Leaf Tissues
    Authors:  Sebastian T. Schenk and Adam Schikora, date: 03/20/2015, view: 7843, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant cell wall is a physical barrier, which fulfills a plethora of functions, for example it can efficiently prevent pathogen’s entry into the cell. In addition, its changing composition contributes to plants inducible defense mechanisms. This layer of defense includes pathogen perception and is followed by the activation of defense responses ...
    Lignin Extraction and Quantification, a Tool to Monitor Defense Reaction at the Plant Cell Wall Level
    Authors:  Sebastian T. Schenk and Adam Schikora, date: 03/20/2015, view: 4117, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Lignin is a complex polymer of phenolic compounds (monolignins), which contributes to the rigidity of the plant cell wall. Lignification is essential for plant development, however it is also one of the mechanisms of plant defense. Accumulation of lignin and the polymerization of monolignins at sides of pathogen attack protect the cell wall ...
    Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Size and Distribution of Spherical Bodies, e.g. Embryonic Oil Bodies
    Authors:  Martine Miquel, Ghassen Trigui, Alain Trubuil and Bertrand Dubreucq, date: 01/05/2015, view: 2857, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Oil bodies (OBs) are seed-specific lipid storage organelles that allow the accumulation of neutral lipids that sustain plantlet development after the onset of germination. Using fluorescent dyes and confocal microscopy, we monitored the dynamics of OBs in living Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) embryos at different stages of development ...
    Seed Coat Permeability Test: Tetrazolium Penetration Assay
    Authors:  Sollapura J. Vishwanath, Frédéric Domergue and Owen Rowland, date: 07/05/2014, view: 4543, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Seed coat permeability is important to study as it plays significant roles in seed dormancy, germination, and protection from pathogens. Here we describe a commonly used seed coat permeability test known as the tetrazolium penetration assay with a method to quantify the levels of permeability. Tetrazolium red is a cationic dye that is widely used ...