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    Capturing Z-stacked Confocal Images of Living Bacteria Entering Hydathode Pores of Cauliflower
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 24, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The present protocol to visualize living bacteria at the pore level of cauliflower hydathodes is simple and trained users in confocal microscopy can execute it successfully. It can be easily adapted to capture images with other plant-microorganism interactions at the leaf surface and should be useful to obtain important information on pore and ...
    Establishing a Symbiotic Interface between Cultured Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Plants to Follow Fungal Phosphate Metabolism
    [Abstract] In ectomycorrhizal plants, the fungal cells colonize the roots of their host plant to create new organs called ectomycorrhizae. In these new organs, the fungal cells colonize the walls of the cortical cells, bathing in the same apoplasm as the plant cells in a space named the ‘Hartig net’, where exchanges between the two partners take place. ...
    A Method for Radioactive Labelling of Hebeloma cylindrosporum to Study Plant-fungus Interactions
    [Abstract] In order to quantify P accumulation and P efflux in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum, we supplied 32P to mycelia previously grown in vitro in liquid medium. The culture had four main steps that are 1) growing the mycelium on complete medium with P, 2) transfer the mycelia into new ...
    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Inoculation and Growth Rate on Rice by Leaf Clipping Method
    Authors:  Yinggen Ke, Shugang Hui and Meng Yuan, date: 10/05/2017, view: 242, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious bacterial diseases and a major impediment to the increase of rice yield. Appropriate methods for inoculation of Xoo and disease scoring are necessary to investigate the nature of the disease and the mechanism of plant ...
    Quantification of Densities of Bacterial Endosymbionts of Insects by Real-time PCR
    Author:  Daisuke Kageyama, date: 10/05/2017, view: 220, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Increased attention has been paid to the endosymbiotic bacteria of insects. Because most insect endosymbionts are uncultivable, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a practical and convenient method to quantify endosymbiont titers. Here we report a protocol for real-time qPCR based on SYBR Green I fluorescence as well as some tips to prevent possible ...
    Ensifer-mediated Arabidopsis thaliana Root Transformation (E-ART): A Protocol to Analyse the Factors that Support Ensifer-mediated Transformation (EMT) of Plant Cells
    Authors:  Dheeraj Singh Rathore, Fiona M. Doohan and Ewen Mullins, date: 10/05/2017, view: 234, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ensifer adhaerens OV14, a soil borne alpha-proteobacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family, fortifies the novel plant transformation technology platform termed ‘Ensifer-mediated transformation’ (EMT). EMT can stably transform both monocot and dicot species, and the host range of EMT is continuously expanding across a diverse range of ...
    Drosophila Fecal Sampling
    Authors:  Christine Fink , Jakob von Frieling, Mirjam Knop and Thomas Roeder, date: 09/20/2017, view: 375, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Fecal sampling is a non-invasive method which raises the possibility to study the development and the changes in the microbial community throughout different time points of a fly population or throughout different treatments. This method allows precise manipulation to trigger the fly’s physiology by nutritional interventions, bacterial infections ...
    Multicolor Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy to Generate High-resolution Images of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Particles and Infected Cells
    [Abstract] Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells induces filopodia, cellular protrusions consisting of F-actin, that extend to neighboring uninfected cells (Mehedi et al., 2016). High-resolution imaging via stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy revealed filamentous RSV particles along these ...
    Rearing of Culex spp. and Aedes spp. Mosquitoes
    [Abstract] Mosquito-transmitted pathogens cause major public health problems and contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses; Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses, among others. Experiments ...
    An Optimized Method for the Production Using PEI, Titration and Neutralization of SARS-CoV Spike Luciferase Pseudotypes
    Authors:  George Carnell, Keith Grehan, Francesca Ferrara, Eleonora Molesti and Nigel Temperton, date: 08/20/2017, view: 652, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The protocol outlined represents a cost-effective, rapid and reliable method for the generation of high-titre viral pseudotype particles with the wild-type SARS-CoV spike protein on a lentiviral vector core using the widely available transfection reagent PEI. This protocol is optimized for transfection in 6-well plates; however it can be readily ...