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    A Streamlined Method for the Preparation of Gelatin Embedded Brains and Simplified Organization of Sections for Serial Reconstructions
    Authors:  Andrew W. Liu, Sho Aoki and Jeffery R. Wickens, date: 11/20/2017, view: 109, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gelatin embedding of whole brains for sectioning is a critical procedure used in neuroscience to ensure all morphological and spatial details are preserved intact. Here, we describe an inexpensive, reproducible and efficient means to embed post-fixed brains ready for sectioning in gelatin within a week’s time. The sections obtained are ...
    Immunogold Localization of Molecular Constituents Associated with Basal Bodies, Flagella, and Extracellular Matrices in Male Gametes of Land Plants
    [Abstract] Male gametes (spermatozoids) are the only motile cells produced during the life cycle of land plants. While absent from flowering and most cone-bearing plants, motile cells are found in less derived taxa, including bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts), pteridophytes (lycophytes and ferns) and some seed plants (Ginkgo and cycads). ...
    Nematode Epicuticle Visualisation by PeakForce Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy
    Authors:  Farida Akhatova, Gölnur Fakhrullina, Elvira Gayazova and Rawil Fakhrullin, date: 11/05/2017, view: 194, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become an iconic experimental model animal in biology. This transparent animal can be easily imaged using optical microscopy to visualise its organs, tissues, single cells and subcellular events. The epicuticle of C. elegans nematodes has been studied at nanoscale using ...
    Proximal Ligation Assay (PLA) on Lung Tissue and Cultured Macrophages to Demonstrate Protein-protein Interaction
    Authors:  Roberto Mendez and Santanu Banerjee, date: 11/05/2017, view: 230, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol, we describe proximal ligation assay (PLA), an antibody-based detection method for protein-protein interaction. This method relies on specific binding of individual primary antibodies to the two putative interacting proteins. The primary antibodies need to have different hosts. The secondary antibodies against the two hosts have ...
    Labeling Aversive Memory Trace in Mouse Using a Doxycycline-inducible Expression System
    Authors:  Jianyang Du and Erin E. Koffman, date: 10/20/2017, view: 407, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A memory trace, also known as a memory engram, is theorized to be a mechanism for physical memory storage in the brain (Silva et al., 2009; Josselyn, 2010) and memory trace is associated with a specific population of neurons (Liu et al., 2012; Ramirez et al., 2013). Labeling and stimulating those neurons will activate ...
    Histochemical Preparations to Depict the Structure of Cauliflower Leaf Hydathodes
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti, Marie-Christine Auriac, Laurent D. Noël and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 403, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hydathodes are plant organs present on leaf margins of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. Both anatomy and physiology of hydathodes are poorly documented. We have recently reported on the anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis thaliana hydathodes and on their infection by the vascular pathogenic bacterium ...
    Capturing Z-stacked Confocal Images of Living Bacteria Entering Hydathode Pores of Cauliflower
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 491, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The present protocol to visualize living bacteria at the pore level of cauliflower hydathodes is simple and trained users in confocal microscopy can execute it successfully. It can be easily adapted to capture images with other plant-microorganism interactions at the leaf surface and should be useful to obtain important information on pore and ...
    DQ-Red BSA Trafficking Assay in Cultured Cells to Assess Cargo Delivery to Lysosomes
    Authors:  Rituraj Marwaha and Mahak Sharma, date: 10/05/2017, view: 1121, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Lysosomes are the terminal end of the endocytic pathway having acidic environment required for active hydrolases that degrade the cargo delivered to these compartments. This process of cargo delivery and degradation by endo-lysosomes is a tightly regulated process and important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Cargos like EGF (Epidermal ...
    Scanning Electron Microscopy of Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    Authors:  Karen Sue Renzaglia, Renee A. Lopez and Steven J. Schmitt, date: 10/05/2017, view: 452, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The only motile cells produced in land plants are male gametes (spermatozoids), which are reduced to non-flagellated cells in flowering plants and most gymnosperms. Although a coiled architecture is universal, the complexity of land plant flagellated cells varies from biflagellated in bryophytes to thousands of flagella per gametes in the seed ...
    Transmission Electron Microscopy of Centrioles, Basal Bodies and Flagella in Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    [Abstract] Motile male gametes (spermatozoids) of land plants are coiled and contain a modified and precisely organized complement of organelles that includes a locomotory apparatus with two to thousands of flagella. Each flagellum is generated from a basal body that originates de novo as a centriole in spermatogenous cell lineages. Much of what is ...