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    [Bio101] MTT Assay for Cytotoxicity Assessment in Oryza sativa Root Tissue
    Authors:  Snehalata Majumdar, Titir Guha and Rita Kundu, date: 11/20/2017, view: 37, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cytotoxicity of different compounds are commonly evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. This assay is mainly used to study cell viability in cell lines (Carmichael et al., 1987). In this study, the protocol is being used to determine the cell viability of plant roots, treated with different ...
    Histochemical Preparations to Depict the Structure of Cauliflower Leaf Hydathodes
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti, Marie-Christine Auriac, Laurent D. Noël and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 403, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Hydathodes are plant organs present on leaf margins of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. Both anatomy and physiology of hydathodes are poorly documented. We have recently reported on the anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis thaliana hydathodes and on their infection by the vascular pathogenic bacterium ...
    Capturing Z-stacked Confocal Images of Living Bacteria Entering Hydathode Pores of Cauliflower
    Authors:  Aude Cerutti and Alain Jauneau, date: 10/20/2017, view: 491, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The present protocol to visualize living bacteria at the pore level of cauliflower hydathodes is simple and trained users in confocal microscopy can execute it successfully. It can be easily adapted to capture images with other plant-microorganism interactions at the leaf surface and should be useful to obtain important information on pore and ...
    Scanning Electron Microscopy of Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    Authors:  Karen Sue Renzaglia, Renee A. Lopez and Steven J. Schmitt, date: 10/05/2017, view: 452, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The only motile cells produced in land plants are male gametes (spermatozoids), which are reduced to non-flagellated cells in flowering plants and most gymnosperms. Although a coiled architecture is universal, the complexity of land plant flagellated cells varies from biflagellated in bryophytes to thousands of flagella per gametes in the seed ...
    Transmission Electron Microscopy of Centrioles, Basal Bodies and Flagella in Motile Male Gametes of Land Plants
    [Abstract] Motile male gametes (spermatozoids) of land plants are coiled and contain a modified and precisely organized complement of organelles that includes a locomotory apparatus with two to thousands of flagella. Each flagellum is generated from a basal body that originates de novo as a centriole in spermatogenous cell lineages. Much of what is ...
    Isolation and Quantification of Plant Extracellular Vesicles
    Authors:  Brian D. Rutter, Katie L. Rutter and Roger W. Innes, date: 09/05/2017, view: 1000, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in intercellular communication by transporting proteins and RNA. While plant cells secrete EVs, they have only recently been isolated and questions regarding their biogenesis, release, uptake and function remain unanswered. Here, we present a detailed protocol for isolating EVs from the ...
    [Bio101] Leaf Clearing Protocol to Observe Stomata and Other Cells on Leaf Surface
    Author:  Nidhi Sharma, date: 09/05/2017, view: 634, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol, leaves are cleared and fixed in an ethanol and acetic acid solution, and mounted in Hoyer’s solution. The cleared leaves are imaged under differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. This protocol is beneficial for studying stomata, hair cells, and other epidermal cells in plants.
    Using Silicon Polymer Impression Technique and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Measure Stomatal Aperture, Morphology, and Density
    Authors:  Hui-Chen Wu, Ya-Chen Huang, Chia-Hung Liu and Tsung-Luo Jinn, date: 08/20/2017, view: 763, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The number of stomata on leaves can be affected by intrinsic development programming and various environmental factors, in addition the control of stomatal apertures is extremely important for the plant stress response. In response to elevated temperatures, transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures, allowing the leaf to cool through ...
    Quantification of Membrane Damage/Cell Death Using Evan’s Blue Staining Technique
    [Abstract] Membrane damage is a hallmark of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. The membrane determines the ability of a cell to sustain altered environmental conditions and hence can be used as a biomarker to assess stress-induced cell damage or death. We present an easy, quick, cost-effective, staining and spectrophotometric method to assess membrane ...
    Isolation of Cytosol, Microsome, Free Polysomes (FPs) and Membrane-bound Polysomes (MBPs) from Arabidopsis Seedlings
    Authors:  Yonghui Zhao and Shengben Li, date: 08/05/2017, view: 910, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant endomembrane system plays vital roles for synthesis, modification and secretion of proteins and lipids. From the classic view, only mRNAs encoding secreted proteins could be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for translation via a co-translational translocation manner, however, recently this model has been challenged by ...