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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Obtaining Multi-electrode Array Recordings from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Neurons
    Authors:  Xiaohong Xu, Carola I. Radulescu, Kagistia Hana Utami and Mahmoud A. Pouladi , date: 11/20/2017, view: 112, Q&A: 0
    Neuronal electrical properties are often aberrant in neurological disorders. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons represent a useful platform for neurological disease modeling, drug discovery and toxicity screening in vitro ...
    A Streamlined Method for the Preparation of Gelatin Embedded Brains and Simplified Organization of Sections for Serial Reconstructions
    Authors:  Andrew W. Liu, Sho Aoki and Jeffery R. Wickens, date: 11/20/2017, view: 163, Q&A: 0
    Gelatin embedding of whole brains for sectioning is a critical procedure used in neuroscience to ensure all morphological and spatial details are preserved intact. Here, we describe an inexpensive, reproducible and efficient means to embed ...
    Combination of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunofluorescence Imaging for Detection of Cytokine Expression in Microglia/Macrophage Cells
    Authors:  Maria Fe Lanfranco, David J. Loane, Italo Mocchetti, Mark P. Burns and Sonia Villapol, date: 11/20/2017, view: 120, Q&A: 0
    Microglia and macrophage cells are the primary producers of cytokines in response to neuroinflammatory processes. But these cytokines are also produced by other glial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It is essential to identify the cells that ...
    Organotypic Brain Cultures: A Framework for Studying CNS Infection by Neurotropic Viruses and Screening Antiviral Drugs
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 50% of emerging viruses endowed with pathogenicity in humans can infect the Central Nervous System (CNS) with induction of encephalitis and other neurologic diseases (Taylor et al., ...
    Obtaining Multi-electrode Array Recordings from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Neurons
    Authors:  Xiaohong Xu, Carola I. Radulescu, Kagistia Hana Utami and Mahmoud A. Pouladi , date: 11/20/2017, view: 112, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Neuronal electrical properties are often aberrant in neurological disorders. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons represent a useful platform for neurological disease modeling, drug discovery and toxicity screening in vitro. Multi-electrode array (MEA) systems offer a non-invasive and label-free platform to record ...
    A Streamlined Method for the Preparation of Gelatin Embedded Brains and Simplified Organization of Sections for Serial Reconstructions
    Authors:  Andrew W. Liu, Sho Aoki and Jeffery R. Wickens, date: 11/20/2017, view: 163, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Gelatin embedding of whole brains for sectioning is a critical procedure used in neuroscience to ensure all morphological and spatial details are preserved intact. Here, we describe an inexpensive, reproducible and efficient means to embed post-fixed brains ready for sectioning in gelatin within a week’s time. The sections obtained are ...
    Combination of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunofluorescence Imaging for Detection of Cytokine Expression in Microglia/Macrophage Cells
    Authors:  Maria Fe Lanfranco, David J. Loane, Italo Mocchetti, Mark P. Burns and Sonia Villapol, date: 11/20/2017, view: 120, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microglia and macrophage cells are the primary producers of cytokines in response to neuroinflammatory processes. But these cytokines are also produced by other glial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It is essential to identify the cells that produce these cytokines to target their different levels of activation. We used dual RNAscope® ...
    Organotypic Brain Cultures: A Framework for Studying CNS Infection by Neurotropic Viruses and Screening Antiviral Drugs
    [Abstract] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 50% of emerging viruses endowed with pathogenicity in humans can infect the Central Nervous System (CNS) with induction of encephalitis and other neurologic diseases (Taylor et al., 2001; Olival and Daszak, 2005). While neurological diseases are progressively documented, the ...
    Assessment of Aversion of Acute Pain Stimulus through Conditioned Place Aversion
    [Abstract] Pain is a complex experience. The aversive component of pain has been assessed through conditioned place aversion in rodents. However, this behavioral test does not allow the evaluation of the aversion of an acute pain stimulus. In Zhang et al. (2017), we provide an updated version of a Conditioned Place Aversion paradigm to address this ...
    Isolation, Culture and Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Precursor Cells
    Authors:  Stefanie N. Bernas, Odette Leiter, Tara L. Walker and Gerd Kempermann, date: 11/05/2017, view: 454, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] There are two neurogenic niches in the adult mammalian brain: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Cells from these areas can be isolated and maintained in vitro, using two different culture systems to assess their potential regarding proliferation and differentiation ...
    Sensitive Estimation of Flavor Preferences in STFP Using Cumulative Time Profiles
    Authors:  Aditya Singh and J. Balaji, date: 11/05/2017, view: 265, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Social transmission of food preference (STFP) is observed among rodents between a demonstrator and a naïve hungry observer. During social interaction, hungry observer receives information about safety of the food consumed by the demonstrator. This task has been implemented to develop a single trial non-aversive learning task in order to test ...
    Labeling Aversive Memory Trace in Mouse Using a Doxycycline-inducible Expression System
    Authors:  Jianyang Du and Erin E. Koffman, date: 10/20/2017, view: 431, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A memory trace, also known as a memory engram, is theorized to be a mechanism for physical memory storage in the brain (Silva et al., 2009; Josselyn, 2010) and memory trace is associated with a specific population of neurons (Liu et al., 2012; Ramirez et al., 2013). Labeling and stimulating those neurons will activate ...
    Isolation and Purification of Schwann Cells from Spinal Nerves of Neonatal Rat
    Authors:  Jinkun Wen, Dandan Tan, Lixia Li and Jiasong Guo, date: 10/20/2017, view: 497, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary cultured Schwann cells (SCs) are widely used in the investigation of the biology of SC and are important seed cells for neural tissue engineering. Here, we describe a novel protocol for harvesting primary cultured SCs from neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In the present protocol, dissociated SCs are isolated from the spinal nerves of ...
    Touchscreen-based Visual Discrimination and Reversal Tasks for Mice to Test Cognitive Flexibility
    Authors:  Karly M. Turner, Christopher G. Simpson and Thomas H. J. Burne, date: 10/20/2017, view: 343, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reversal learning can be used to examine deficits in cognitive flexibility, which have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction. However, methods of examining reversal learning have varied substantially between species. Touchscreen technology has allowed researchers to explore cognitive deficits ...